The Influence of Leadership on Good Governance: The Case of Selected Villages in Rungwe and Babati District Councils in Tanzania
66 Pages Posted: 11 Feb 2015 Last revised: 22 Mar 2016
Date Written: February 9, 2015
This study was about how leadership influences good governance in selected villages in Tanzania. This area was selected because there are few academic articles and publications that dwell on leadership and governance in areas beyond and below the administrative districts in the country. The management studies on administrative divisions, wards, villages and vitongoji in respect of leadership and governance issues are not systematically and deliberately conducted.
The main objective of the study was to understand ‘how leadership influences good governance at village levels’. Its objectives included (i) to examine leaders’ behaviour in four selected villages, (ii) to determine factors affecting leaders’ behavior (iii) to examine the effect of leadership behaviour on good governance, (iv) to identify environmental factors affecting leadership performance. The study used cross-sectional design whereby data were collected at a single point in time. The target population of the study consisted of all households in Rungwe and Babati Districts. The sub-sampling frames which were used in this study were obtained from the village offices. One sub-sampling frame consisted of village council members, another sub-sampling frame consisted of villagers and the last sampling frame consisted of leaders (Village executive officers and village chairpersons). At the regional level purposive sampling was used to select the districts which were assumed of exercising good leadership and those villages which were assumed of exercising bad leadership. The wards selected in Rungwe District were Mpandapanda and Lubanda. The wards selected in Babati District were Matufa and Magala. This made a total of four wards, two from semi urban and two from rural areas. Simple random sampling was used to select the villagers who were included in the sample. Purposive sampling was used to select key informants of this study. The criterion of choosing the key informants was either being a leader in the ward or being a village council member. Therefore, the key informants of the study included: Village executive members, village chairpersons and village council members of the four selected villages. The researchers conducted the focus group discussions from the four selected villages which were included in the study. In each village the researchers conducted two focus group discussions to the villagers. A sample size of 125 households was selected and included in the sample. This included 80 households who were only villagers from the four selected villages and 45 people who were members of the village council from the four villages. Qualitative method was used to analyze the in depth interviews. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were determined and the information was presented in form of tables. The findings indicate that leaders behave differently basing on circumstance. Leaders demonstrate both transformational and transactional qualities although at different degrees. The study reveals that the factors which affect leaders’ behavior include education and experiences, culture and follower’s behavior. The effects of leadership behavior have been measured based on participation which is an aspect of good governance. The study also identified environmental factors which affect leadership performance as politics, lack of resources and shortage of qualified staff. The study recommends that awareness should be created to people on the importance of participating on different development activities from planning to implementation.
Keywords: Leadership, good governance, villages
JEL Classification: H70, R50
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation