In the Title IX Race Toward Gender Equality, the Black Female Athlete Is Left to Finish Last: The Lack of Access for the 'Invisible Woman'

21 Pages Posted: 17 Feb 2015

Date Written: 1988

Abstract

Although each of us is defined by race and gender, those of us who are neither white nor male often experience invisibility as a result of our dual subordinate status.... Black women have been disproportionately located at the lower end of the economic hierarchy and, therefore, have been unable to afford private golf, swimming, or tennis lessons. Overt racial discrimination prevented black women from gaining access to the sports participated in by white women. To the extent that the main thrust of solutions to gender inequity and a lack of adherence to Title IX mandates has been the addition of opportunities in the country club sports or those sports not traditionally accessible to Black women, we lose yet again.

Keywords: female, athlete, black, title IX, racial discrimination

JEL Classification: K00, K19, K39, J71, L83

Suggested Citation

Evans, Tonya M., In the Title IX Race Toward Gender Equality, the Black Female Athlete Is Left to Finish Last: The Lack of Access for the 'Invisible Woman' (1988). Howard Law Journal, Vol. 42, No. 105, 1998. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2566417

Tonya M. Evans (Contact Author)

UNH Law ( email )

Two White Street
Concord, NH 03301
United States
603-513-5170 (Phone)

HOME PAGE: http://www.ProfTonyaEvans.com

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