Understanding, Tolerance, and Systems of Logic

Mother Pelican, A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability Vol. 12, No. 7, July 2016

27 Pages Posted: 11 Mar 2020

Date Written: February 18, 2015


The word “logic” is very misleading, because there is not one system of logic. There are many. Eleven of them are analyzed in this paper. Scanty hints are given of the cultural context in which these systems were developed and prospered. Systems of logic are all structurally identical, but the principles of logic that they adopt are different from one another. Still, they all perform the same identical function of providing rules of correct reasoning—but only from within each system. Communication across systems of logic requires attentive translation, otherwise, it might lead to serious misunderstanding; modern economics is especially prone to this type of misunderstanding. Of course, it is to be hoped that some day human beings will all use one, the same, system of logic. Relational Logic, built on principles that have been most constant in history, is offered here as a candidate to perform such unifying function. It would especially tend to unify the warring schools that grapple with understanding the economic system.

Keywords: Logic, principles of logic, systems of logic, understanding, tolerance, economic logic

JEL Classification: A12, B1, B2, B4, B59, D80, N01, P49

Suggested Citation

Gorga, Carmine, Understanding, Tolerance, and Systems of Logic (February 18, 2015). Mother Pelican, A Journal of Solidarity and Sustainability Vol. 12, No. 7, July 2016, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2566946 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2566946

Carmine Gorga (Contact Author)

The Somist Institute ( email )

87 Middle Street
Gloucester, MA 01930
United States
9782835926 (Phone)
9782834936 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://www.carmine-gorga.us

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