Reading Metacognitive Awareness in Malaysian Secondary Schools: Some Aspects of Students Background Differences

10 Pages Posted: 24 Feb 2015

See all articles by Muhammad Zailaini

Muhammad Zailaini

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Educational Foundations

Wail Ismail

University of Malaya - Faculty of Education - Department of Educational Foundations

Anfal Muzammil

University of Malaya (UM) - Faculty of Education

Date Written: December 30, 2014

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the reading metacognitive awareness (RMA) among the secondary school students. Specifically, the study answers the following question: Are there differences in reading metacognitive awareness in terms of gender, place of residence, family socioeconomic status, self-confidence and time to learn?

The instrument used measured the degree of RMA and it consisted of four components which were; conditional knowledge, planning, regulation and evaluation. The study was carried among 317 Form Five students. Data was collected based on the Index of Reading Awareness (IRA). This Index consisted of 20 questions appraising the level of RMA.

IRA was chosen by McLain, Gridley and McIntosh (1991) because they found it suitable for measuring the level of reading metacognitive awareness. Lipson and Wixson (1989) also recommended that teachers used the IRA to detect the level of students' metacognitive awareness, as well as in ensuring the effectiveness of metacognitive strategies.

This study has shown that the differences between boys and girls in the reading metacognitive awareness is significant. This means that girls are more conscious in reading than male students. This finding is compatible with the studies of Paris and Jacobs (1984) in which female students scored significantly higher than male students in the IRA.

The findings also show that differences in residence and socioeconomic status of families of students in the reading metacognitive awareness are not significant. Students who live in the city and the students who live in rural areas have the same abilities in the reading metacognitive awareness. This indicates that the level of awareness and control of a student of metacognitive in reading is not dependent on external factors such as place of residence and the surrounding socioeconomic status families of students. What is important, the students must receive training, exposure and systematic testing to increase the level of awareness of metacognitive in reading.

From another aspect, the findings of this study suggested that differences in students' self-assessment of metacognitive awareness of reading is significant. It clearly shows that there is self-assessment which affects students metacognitive awareness of reading.

In addition, this study also shows that the difference in the amount of reading time in the metacognitive awareness of reading is significant. This clearly shows that the use of the time to read influence the metacognitive awareness of reading.

These findings show that the students' personalities or internal factors also influences metacognitive awareness of reading. Therefore, they need to be changed through intervention, education or psychological actions to improve the functions of personality and cognitive and metacognitive skills so that they are more prepared for a systematic and balanced academic achievement.

Keywords: Index of Reading Awareness, Learning Skills, Reading Metacognitive Awareness, Reading Strategies and Secondary Schools

Suggested Citation

Zailaini, Muhammad and Ismail, Wail and Muzammil, Anfal, Reading Metacognitive Awareness in Malaysian Secondary Schools: Some Aspects of Students Background Differences (December 30, 2014). OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 07, No. 11, pp. 65-74, 2014, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2568491

Muhammad Zailaini (Contact Author)

University of Malaya (UM) - Department of Educational Foundations ( email )

Malaysia

Wail Ismail

University of Malaya - Faculty of Education - Department of Educational Foundations ( email )

Kuala Lumpur
Malaysia

Anfal Muzammil

University of Malaya (UM) - Faculty of Education ( email )

50603 Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur, 50603
Malaysia

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