Navigating the Legal Risks of Daily Fantasy Sports: A Detailed Primer in Federal and State Gambling Law
34 Pages Posted: 1 Apr 2015 Last revised: 8 Feb 2016
Date Written: March 30, 2015
Over the past two years, there has been a monumental shift in how U.S. professional sports leagues have perceived “daily fantasy sports.” Back in March 2013, the chief executive of Major League Baseball Advanced Media, Robert Bowman, told the New York Times that he perceived “daily fantasy sports” as “akin to a flip of the coin, which is the definition of gambling.” However, today, Major League Baseball promotes a play-for-cash “daily fantasy sports” contest on its website. Similarly, the National Basketball Association once purported to oppose all forms of fantasy sports gaming; meanwhile it now owns an equity stake in FanDuel Inc. – the marketplace leader in “daily fantasy sports.”
Today’s more favorable relationship between professional sports leagues and the “daily fantasy sports” industry has led many in the media to speculate that “[l]egal issues, although a concern, are relatively minor.” Nevertheless, such generalizations about the legal status of “daily fantasy sports” are grossly oversimplified. Indeed, there is no blanket immunity under federal or state law for “daily fantasy sports.” Rather, in all likelihood, the legal status of “daily fantasy sports” varies based on the nature of any specific contest’s game rules and where that particular contest operates.
This article explores the legal status of “daily fantasy sports” in light of both federal and state gambling laws. Part I of this article discusses the history of “daily fantasy sports,” beginning with its dimorphic roots in both full-season fantasy sports contests and illegal online sportsbooks. Part II introduces the different formats of “daily fantasy sports” that exist in today’s online marketplace. Part III explores the legal risks of “daily fantasy sports” under state gambling laws. Part IV analyzes these same risks under federal law. Finally, Part V proposes eight best practices to enable “daily fantasy sports” companies to minimize their legal risks under both federal and state gambling laws.
Keywords: sports law, fantasy sports, daily fantasy sports, online gaming, online gambling, fantasy sports law
JEL Classification: L83, O31, O33, K00, K14, K20, K23, K29, K30, K39, K40, K49, L50, L52, L53, L80, M30, M49, Z10
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation