Why are Indian Children so Short?

48 Pages Posted: 6 Apr 2015

See all articles by Seema Jayachandran

Seema Jayachandran

Northwestern University - Department of Economics

Rohini Pande

Yale University - Economic Growth Center

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: March 2015


India's child stunting rate is among the highest in the world, exceeding that of many poorer African countries. In this paper, we analyze data for over 174,000 Indian and Sub-Saharan African children to show that Indian firstborns are taller than African firstborns; the Indian height disadvantage emerges with the second child and then increases with birth order. This pattern persists when we compare height between siblings, and also holds for health inputs such as vaccinations. Three patterns in the data indicate that India's culture of eldest son preference plays a key role in explaining the steeper birth order gradient among Indian children and, consequently, the overall height deficit. First, the Indian firstborn height advantage only exists for sons. Second, an Indian son with an older sibling is taller than his African counterpart if and only if he is the eldest son. Third, the India-Africa height deficit is largest for daughters with no older brothers, which reflects that fact that their families are those most likely to exceed their desired fertility in order to have a son.

Suggested Citation

Jayachandran, Seema and Pande, Rohini, Why are Indian Children so Short? (March 2015). NBER Working Paper No. w21036, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2590220

Seema Jayachandran (Contact Author)

Northwestern University - Department of Economics ( email )

2003 Sheridan Road
Evanston, IL 60208
United States

Rohini Pande

Yale University - Economic Growth Center ( email )

Box 208269
New Haven, CT 06520-8269
United States

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