The Use and Effectiveness of Macroprudential Policies: New Evidence

44 Pages Posted: 14 Apr 2015

See all articles by Eugenio Cerutti

Eugenio Cerutti

International Monetary Fund (IMF); Johns Hopkins University

Stijn Claessens

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Luc Laeven

European Central Bank (ECB); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Date Written: March 2015


Using a recent IMF survey and expanding on previous studies, we document the use of macroprudential policies for 119 countries over the 2000-13 period, covering many instruments. Emerging economies use macroprudential policies most frequently, especially foreign exchange related ones, while advanced countries use borrower-based policies more. Usage is generally associated with lower growth in credit, notably in household credit. Effects are less in financially more developed and open economies, however, and usage comes with greater cross-border borrowing, suggesting some avoidance. And while macroprudential policies can help manage financial cycles, they work less well in busts.

Keywords: Macroprudential Policy, Emerging markets, Developed countries, Procyclicality of financial system, Cross country analysis, Time series, Macroprudential policies, Effectiveness, Financial cycles, credit growth, monetary fund, borrower, instruments, exchange, capital flow

JEL Classification: E43, E58, G18, G28

Suggested Citation

Cerutti, Eugenio and Claessens, Stijn and Laeven, Luc A., The Use and Effectiveness of Macroprudential Policies: New Evidence (March 2015). IMF Working Paper No. 15/61, Available at SSRN:

Eugenio Cerutti (Contact Author)

International Monetary Fund (IMF) ( email )

700 19th Street N.W.
Washington, DC 20431
United States

Johns Hopkins University ( email )

Baltimore, MD 21218
United States

Stijn Claessens

Bank for International Settlements (BIS) ( email )

Centralbahnplatz 2
CH-4002 Basel

Luc A. Laeven

European Central Bank (ECB) ( email )

Sonnemannstrasse 22
Frankfurt am Main, 60314

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

United Kingdom

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