The Local Socioeconomic Effects of Gold Mining: Evidence from Ghana
47 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016 Last revised: 1 Aug 2019
Date Written: April 23, 2015
Ghana is experiencing its third gold rush, and this paper sheds light on the socioeconomic impacts of this rapid expansion in industrial production. The paper uses a rich data set consisting of geocoded household data combined with detailed information on gold mining activities, and conducts two types of difference-in-differences estimations that provide complementary evidence. The first is a local-level analysis that identifies an economic footprint area very close to a mine; the second is a district-level analysis that captures the fiscal channel. The results indicate that men are more likely to benefit from direct employment as miners and that women are more likely to gain from indirect employment opportunities in services, although these results are imprecisely measured. Long-established households gain access to infrastructure, such as electricity and radios. Migrants living close to mines are less likely to have access to electricity and the incidence of diarrheal diseases is higher among migrant children. Overall, however, infant mortality rates decrease significantly in mining communities.
Keywords: Mining & Extractive Industry (Non-Energy), Primary Metals, Reproductive Health, Early Child and Children's Health, Educational Sciences
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