Essentials of Constructive Heterodoxy: Institutions

18 Pages Posted: 26 Apr 2015 Last revised: 5 May 2015

See all articles by Egmont Kakarot-Handtke

Egmont Kakarot-Handtke

University of Stuttgart - Institute of Economics and Law

Date Written: April 24, 2015


What do economists understand about the economy if they do not understand the profit phenomenon? Next to nothing. Therefore, the first task in theoretical economics is to clarify the difference between profit and wage income and their respective determinants. It was Ricardo who tackled the problem first, but neither Orthodoxy nor Heterodoxy solved it until this day. The need for a paradigm shift is indisputable. The structural axiomatic approach is more comprehensive as it embraces the consistent interaction of real and nominal variables of the monetary economy and the economic consequences of alternative variants of institutions, e.g. land ownership.

Keywords: new framework of concepts, structure-centric, axiom set, real analysis, nominal analysis, profit, distributed profit, ownership, land, rent

JEL Classification: B59, E10, H00

Suggested Citation

Kakarot-Handtke, Egmont, Essentials of Constructive Heterodoxy: Institutions (April 24, 2015). Available at SSRN: or

Egmont Kakarot-Handtke (Contact Author)

University of Stuttgart - Institute of Economics and Law ( email )

Keplerstrasse 17

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