Permissibility of Colour and Racial Profiling

19 Pages Posted: 13 Jun 2015

See all articles by James Gill

James Gill

Thompson Rivers University

Date Written: April 19, 2015


Racial profiling in law enforcement is a contentious matter, particularly in light of U.S. police-citizen race tensions. The racial profiling debate has not been settled. Racial profiling proponents view it as a tool to effectively uncover criminal activity among certain racial groups. Critics find that racial profiling perpetuates racial stigmas and is largely inefficient as a policing tool. This article explores the ongoing debate and offers an overview of the Canadian judicial experience with racial profiling. The author proposes a middle-ground solution where racial profiling may be used under certain constraints imposed on law enforcement. The author suggests that the Crown provide justificatory evidence for the use of racial profiling when it is raised as a defence by the accused.

Keywords: race, racial profiling, detention, race-based profiling, driving while Black, police, police oversight, police accountability, racism, racial stigmas, policing tools, law enforcement, evidentiary burden, policing tool, discrimination, Canada, United States, Tupac Shakur, Donald Marshall Jr, Neil Sto

Suggested Citation

Gill, James, Permissibility of Colour and Racial Profiling (April 19, 2015). Western Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. 5, No. 3, 2015. Available at SSRN:

James Gill (Contact Author)

Thompson Rivers University ( email )

900 McGill Road
Kamloops, BC V2C 5N3

Here is the Coronavirus
related research on SSRN

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
PlumX Metrics