Fertility Transition in Turkey?Who is Most at Risk of Deciding Against Child Arrival?
38 Pages Posted: 20 Apr 2016
Date Written: June 16, 2015
In Turkey, female employment and education are still relatively low, while fertility levels are high compared with other European countries. However, Turkey stands just at the edge of an important social transition. Increasing female education and employment come along with important decreases in fertility. By mobilizing census and survey data, this paper finds that fertility decreases are mainly caused by fewer transitions to a third birth. Graduate women participating in the formal labor market are most at risk of deciding against child arrival in comparison with inactive or unemployed women. The third rank is particularly concerned, as women?s income contribution seems to be crucial for many families that already have two children, and the arrival of a third child risks reducing or stopping women?s working activities in the absence of institutional childcare support. Policies enabling women to combine work and family life, which have been proven effective in other European countries, emerge as useful to avoid a further fertility decline below replacement level in Turkey.
Keywords: Gender and Economics, Family Planning Research, Gender and Poverty, Reproductive Health, Population Policies, Population Sciences, Demographics, Gender and Economic Policy, Population & Development, Economics and Gender
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