Smallholder Participation in Contract Farming: Comparative Evidence from Five Countries
17 Pages Posted: 10 Jul 2015 Last revised: 21 Jul 2015
Date Written: April 1, 2012
Supermarkets, specialized wholesalers, processors, and agro-exporters are transforming the marketing channels into which smallholder farmers sell produce in low-income economies. We develop a conceptual framework with which to study contracting between smallholders and a commodity-processing firm. We then synthesize results from empirical studies of contract farming arrangements in five countries (Ghana, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, and Nicaragua). The resulting meta-narrative documents patterns of participation, the welfare gains associated with participation, reasons for nonparticipation, the significant extent of contract noncompliance, and the considerable dynamism of these value chains as farmers and firms enter and exit frequently.
Keywords: agricultural value chains, contract farming, Africa, Asia, Latin America
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