Pain and Preferences: Observed Decisional Conflict and the Convergence of Preferences
77 Pages Posted: 15 Jul 2015
Date Written: July 13, 2015
Decision making often entails conflict. In many situations, the symptoms of such decisional conflict are conspicuous. This paper explores an important and unexamined question: How does observing someone else experiencing decisional conflict impact our own preferences? The authors show that observing others’ emotional conflict and agony over an impending decision makes the observer’s preferences converge to those of the conflicted actor (i.e., choose similarly). Thus, this paper contributes to the social influence literature by demonstrating that observers’ preferences are not only influenced by an actor’s ultimate choice, but also by the process leading to this choice. For example, in one experiment, participants' real monetary donations to one of two charities converged to those of a paid confederate that agonized over the decision. Six studies demonstrate this effect and show that it is triggered by empathy and a greater sense of shared identity with the conflicted actor. Accordingly, the studies show the effect is more pronounced for individuals with a greater tendency to empathize with others, and that convergence occurs only if participants deem the actor’s conflict warranted given the decision at hand. The authors also demonstrate important implications of this effect in contexts of group decision-making.
Keywords: Social Influence, Conflict, Empathy, Shared Identity, Preferences
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