Identifying Opportunity Occupations in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas

Special Report of the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Atlanta, September 2015

35 Pages Posted: 15 Sep 2015

See all articles by Keith Wardrip

Keith Wardrip

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia

Kyle Fee

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Lisa Nelson

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland

Stuart Andreason

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta; University of Pennsylvania

Date Written: September 9, 2015

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate the extent to which the U.S. economy offers decent-paying jobs to workers without a four-year college degree. We define an “opportunity occupation” as one that is generally considered accessible to someone without a bachelor’s degree and that pays at least the national annual median wage, adjusted for differences in local consumption prices. Focusing on the 100 largest metropolitan areas and using measures that reflect both the typical education needed to enter an occupation and the requisite education suggested by incumbent workers and occupational experts, we find that 27.4 percent of employment could be found in opportunity occupations in 2014. This estimate falls by more than seven percentage points — to 20.3 percent — when we predicate job accessibility on the educational attainment requested by employers in online job ads.

The availability of opportunity-rich work for those without a bachelor’s degree varies dramatically across the metropolitan areas in our study, ranging from 36.6 percent to well under half that level. The educational preferences of employers as expressed in online job ads introduce a potentially significant barrier to economic self-sufficiency for those without a four-year degree, lowering the share of opportunity occupations by more than 10 percentage points in some metro areas. Our analysis suggests that since 2011, the level of education requested in job ads has become less stringent for some occupations and more stringent for others.

Keywords: opportunity occupations, labor markets, non-bachelor degree jobs, jobs, real time labor data, Burning Glass

JEL Classification: J10, J31, O18

Suggested Citation

Wardrip, Keith and Fee, Kyle and Nelson, Lisa and Andreason, Stuart, Identifying Opportunity Occupations in the Nation's Largest Metropolitan Areas (September 9, 2015). Special Report of the Federal Reserve Banks of Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Atlanta, September 2015. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2660205

Keith Wardrip

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia ( email )

Ten Independence Mall
Philadelphia, PA 19106-1574
United States

Kyle Fee

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland ( email )

East 6th & Superior
Cleveland, OH 44101-1387
United States

Lisa Nelson

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland ( email )

East 6th & Superior
Cleveland, OH 44101-1387
United States

Stuart Andreason (Contact Author)

Federal Reserve Banks - Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta ( email )

1000 Peachtree Street N.E.
Atlanta, GA 30309-4470
United States

University of Pennsylvania ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

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