Pollution and Mortality in the 19th Century

75 Pages Posted: 19 Oct 2015 Last revised: 24 Feb 2021

See all articles by William Walker Hanlon

William Walker Hanlon

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Department of Economics

Date Written: October 2015


Mortality was extremely high in the industrial cities of the 19th century, but little is known about the role played by pollution in generating this pattern, due largely to a lack of direct pollution measures. I overcome this problem by combining data on the local composition of industries in Britain with information on the intensity with which industries used polluting inputs. Using this new measure, I show that pollution had a strong impact on mortality as far back as the 1850s. Industrial pollution explains 30-40% of the relationship between mortality and population density in 1851-60, and nearly 60% of this relationship in 1900. Growing industrial coal use from 1851-1900 reduced life expectancy by at least 0.57 years. A back-of-the envelope estimate suggests that the value of this loss of life, expressed as a one-time cost, was equal to at least 0.33-1.00 of annual GDP in 1900. Overall, these results show that industrial pollution was a major cause of mortality in the 19th century, particularly in urban areas, and that industrial growth during this period came at a substantial cost to health.

Suggested Citation

Hanlon, William Walker, Pollution and Mortality in the 19th Century (October 2015). NBER Working Paper No. w21647, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2675920

William Walker Hanlon (Contact Author)

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) - Department of Economics ( email )

Box 951477
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1477
United States

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