A Systematic Review of the Effect of Early Interventions for Psychosis on the Usage of Inpatient Service
Schizophrenia Bulletin vol. 41 no. 6 pp. 1379–1386, 2015
8 Pages Posted: 3 Nov 2015 Last revised: 4 Dec 2015
Date Written: October 29, 2015
Objectives: To review and synthesize the currently available research on whether early intervention for psychosis programs reduce the use of inpatient services.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted using keywords searches on PubMed, Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (ProQuest), Scopus, CINAHL (EBSCO), Social Work Abstracts (EBSCO), Social Science Citations Index (Web of Science), Sociological Abstracts (ProQuest), and Child Development & Adolescent Studies (EBSCO). To be included, studies had to be peer-reviewed publications in English, examining early intervention programs using a variant of assertive community treatment, with a control/comparison group, and reporting inpatient service use outcomes. The primary outcome extracted number hospitalized and total N. Secondary outcome extracted means and standard deviations. Data were pooled using random effects models. Primary outcome was the occurrence of any hospitalization during treatment. A secondary outcome was the average bed-days used during treatment period.
Results: Fifteen projects were identified and included in the study. Results of meta-analysis supported the occurrence of a positive effect for intervention for both outcome measures (any hospitalization OR: 0.33; 95% CI 0.18–0.63, bed-days usage SMD: −0.38, 95% CI −0.53 to −0.24). There was significant heterogeneity of effect across the studies. This heterogeneity is due to a handful of studies with unusually positive responses.
Conclusion: These results suggest that early intervention programs are superior to standard of care, with respect to reducing inpatient service usage. Wider use of these programs may prevent the occurrence of admission for patients experiencing the onset of psychotic symptoms.
Keywords: psychosis, psychotic disorders, early intervention, health care utilization, treatment outcome
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation