The New Public Accommodations: Race Discrimination in the Platform Economy

53 Pages Posted: 7 Nov 2015 Last revised: 11 Sep 2017

See all articles by Nancy Leong

Nancy Leong

University of Denver Sturm College of Law

Aaron Belzer

University of Denver Sturm College of Law

Date Written: July 24, 2017


The platform economy raises important new questions about public accommodation laws. Such laws originally were enacted to prohibit establishments open to the public-for example, hotels, restaurants, taxi services, and retail businesses-from discriminating on the basis of characteristics such as race, color, religion, and national origin. Platform economy businesses are functional substitutes for these traditional public accommodations. Yet existing public accommodation laws are not always a good fit for the unique features of the platform economy.

This Article is the first to argue that public accommodation laws must evolve to address race discrimination in the platform economy. Available evidence suggests that, in many circumstances, race discrimination affects the platform economy in much the same way that it affects the traditional economy. Platform economy businesses use online platforms to connect providers of goods and services-such as drivers and landlords-with users of those goods and services-such as passengers and renters. These platforms often make race visible to both providers and users by requiring that they create profiles that include names, photographs, and other information. Such profiles may trigger conscious and unconscious bias and result in discrimination even if the parties never meet in person. Moreover, platform economy businesses encourage or even require providers to rate users. Rating systems aggregate biases, and users who are members of disfavored racial categories may begin to receive worse service or, eventually, to be denied service altogether.

This Article examines existing public accommodation laws - Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. § 1981, 42 U.S.C. § 1982, and the Fair Housing Act-and concludes that they hold considerable promise for remedying discrimination in the platform economy. Nonetheless, the platform economy presents new issues that existing laws do not entirely address. To the extent that platform economy businesses perform the same function as traditional public accommodations yet escape existing laws, we argue that those laws should be amended and briefly describe the form the new laws should take.

Keywords: sharing economy, new economy, public accommodations, discrimination, race discrimination, racism, implicit bias, Title II, legislation, UBER, airbnb

Suggested Citation

Leong, Nancy and Belzer, Aaron, The New Public Accommodations: Race Discrimination in the Platform Economy (July 24, 2017). 105 Georgetown Law Journal 1271 (2017), U Denver Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-20, Available at SSRN: or

Nancy Leong (Contact Author)

University of Denver Sturm College of Law ( email )

2255 E. Evans. Ave.
# 465A
Denver, CO 80208-0600
United States

Aaron Belzer

University of Denver Sturm College of Law ( email )

Denver, CO 80202
United States

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