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اختلاف مطالع اور وحدت عیدین و رمضان کا مسئلہ (Uniform Global Islamic Calendar: Legal Issues)

Fikr-o-Nazar, 48:4 (2011), 95-121.

27 Pages Posted: 5 May 2016  

Muhammad Mushtaq Ahmad

International Islamic University, Islamabad; International Committee of the Red Cross

Date Written: 2011


Urdu Abstract:
عالمی سطح پر ایک ہی دن عید اور رمضان کے فیصلے کے لیے مختلفافراد اور اداروں کی جانب سے کوششیں کی جارہی ہیں۔ اس مقالے میں دکھایا گیا ہے کہ اس موضوع پر ساری بحث اختلاف مطالع کے مسئلے کے گرد گھمتی ہے، حالانکہ فقہی و قانونی لحاظ سے اس سے زیادہ اہم مسئلہ قانونی اختیار یعنی ولایت کا ہے ۔ چنانچہ جس حکمران کا اختیار جس علاقے تک محدود ہے، وہ صرف وہیں اپنا فیصلہ نافذ کرسکتا ہے ۔ اس لیے جب تک مسلمان ممالک آپس میں معاہدہ کرکے ایک کی رویت دوسرے کے لیے قابل قبول نہ بنائیں، تب تک صرف اس بات سے کام نہیں چل سکتا کہ اختلاف مطالع کو ناقابل اعتبار قرار دیا جائے۔

English Abstract: In this age of information revolution and globalization, people generally express dismay over celebrating Ramadan and Eid on different days in different parts of the world. It is also generally asserted that the Muslim jurists (fuqaha’) have generally preferred the opinion that ikhtilaf al-matali‘ does not have any legal effect. The present paper analyzes this issue from the perspective of Muslim jurisprudence and concludes that apart from ikhtilaf al-matali‘, the most serious legal obstacle is the absence of one central government, or caliphate, in the Muslim world. The paper argues that under the Islamic principles the authority to decide the beginning or the end of an Islamic month rests with the government and that the decision of a government is binding and enforces only the territory under its legal authority. Hence, ideally the solution is to have once central government for the Muslim world. In the absence of that, unity in Ramdan and Eid cannot be achieved unless all the Muslim states conclude a treaty wherein they declare that the decision of one government that crescent has been sighted would be binding on all other states. Moreover, this decision will become binding on Muslims living as minorities in non-Muslim states only when the seasoned religious scholars (‘ulama’) of those areas accept this decision as binding because under the Islamic principles the ‘ulama’ assume the status of Muslim ruler for the purpose of decision about moonsighting in such areas. Hence, unless such a concerted global effort is made, the dream of enforcing a uniform lunar calendar throughout the world cannot come true.

Notes: Downloadable document is in Urdu.

Keywords: Moonsighting, Ramadan, Eid, Islamic Calendar

JEL Classification: K14

Suggested Citation

Ahmad, Muhammad Mushtaq, اختلاف مطالع اور وحدت عیدین و رمضان کا مسئلہ (Uniform Global Islamic Calendar: Legal Issues) (2011). Fikr-o-Nazar, 48:4 (2011), 95-121.. Available at SSRN:

Muhammad Ahmad (Contact Author)

International Islamic University, Islamabad ( email )

PO Box 1243
Sector H-10
Islamabad, PA Kpk 44000


International Committee of the Red Cross ( email )

House no. 12, Street 83
Islamabad, 54000

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