Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar

48 Pages Posted: 31 Dec 2015

See all articles by David Raitzer

David Raitzer

Asian Development Bank

Jindra Nuella Samson

Asian Development Bank

Kee-Yung Nam

Asian Development Bank

Date Written: December 2015

Abstract

Myanmar’s long isolation from international markets and sources of finance historically limited development, and thus, the pressure on its environment. Many of its resources remain relatively intact, despite an absence of effective environmental regulations. Yet, as the country integrates into the global economy and its economic development accelerates, resource degradation is rising rapidly. Deforestation of closed forests in recent years has taken place at the fastest rate among major Southeast Asian countries, much of it driven by concessions for plantations and other large-scale projects. Marine capture fishing pressure has increased rapidly, and the sustainability of catches is largely unknown. Water and air pollution effluents and emissions are escalating. At the same time, policy responses to date, while emphasizing overall sustainability, need to be developed to address these issues. Environmental impact assessment procedures, environmental quality standards, emissions regulations, and penalties for environmental violations remain under development. Perverse incentives for resource destruction are still in place and efforts to create market incentives for sustainable practices are at an initial stage. To ensure long-run, sustainable economic development, Myanmar’s reforms need to address these issues more quickly and comprehensively.

Keywords: deforestation, environmental protection and conservation, Myanmar, pollution management, vulnerability to climate change

JEL Classification: O13, O44, Q15, Q56

Suggested Citation

Raitzer, David and Samson, Jindra Nuella and Nam, Kee-Yung, Achieving Environmental Sustainability in Myanmar (December 2015). Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series No. 467, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2709328 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2709328

David Raitzer (Contact Author)

Asian Development Bank ( email )

6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550
Metro Manila
Philippines

Jindra Nuella Samson

Asian Development Bank ( email )

6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550
Metro Manila
Philippines

Kee-Yung Nam

Asian Development Bank ( email )

6 ADB Avenue, Mandaluyong City 1550
Metro Manila
Philippines

Do you have a job opening that you would like to promote on SSRN?

Paper statistics

Downloads
174
Abstract Views
833
rank
215,692
PlumX Metrics