Indium Tin Oxide with Zwitterionic Interfacial Design for Biosensing Applications In Complex Matrices
Applied Surface Science 325 (2015) 91–99
9 Pages Posted: 12 Jul 2017
Date Written: January 7, 2016
Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH) and charged, antifouling moieties ((SO3− and N (Me)32) for biosensing applications were prepared for the ﬁrst time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both afﬁnity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-speciﬁc protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with ﬂuorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study, we used 2-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxy]acetic acid (OEG) as a standard control because of its prominent antifouling properties. Surface compositions of combinations 1 and 2 were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of the grafted ﬁlms to conﬁrm the even distribution between linker and antifouling molecules grafted onto the ITO surfaces. Combination 1 (SP:TMAP:PPD) with a ratio of 0.5:1.5:0.37 exhibited the best antifouling capability with respect to resisting the nonspeciﬁc adsorption of proteins.
Keywords: Biosensor, Indium tin oxide, Anti-biofouling coating, Zwitterionic molecules
JEL Classification: I1, I10
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation