The Western Himalayan Legend of Walled-Up Wife: State, Waterways, Patriarchy
Himalaya, the Journal of the Association for Nepal and Himalayan Studies, Vol. 35, No 2, January 2016
18 Pages Posted: 13 Jan 2016
Date Written: January 11, 2016
There are poignant western Himalayan ballads that narrate the tales of women who were immured at the foot of a waterway (kulh), to ensure a steady supply of water. In this paper we probe how the early legends of walled-up women were linked to state formation and how ruling elites later used such events to move up the social and political ladder. The paper also explores how pervasive the patriarchal hold over the lives of women was, how nuanced was the power of patriarchs, and how death became a spectacle, echoed in the ballads of walled-up wife. The focus is not only on narrative representations. Rather, we presume that like all narratives these ballads too are rooted in specific historical, cultural, and ideological contexts. We ask, therefore, what ideological goals and rhetorical strategies may have contributed to representations within the cultural reality of the narrators and audiences. Also, how does this exceptional portrayal function within the 'unified narrative' and its overall conceptualization of women beyond the walled-up wife? Crucial to understanding these issues are the dominant gender discourses that were prevalent in the culture-scapes in which these ballads were formed. While recounting some of these ballads, therefore, we chart out the trajectory of their progression as a genre, which eventually binds them as a meta-narrative reinforcing the patriarchal values rather powerfully. It might be of some interest to note that there are similar ballads and folktales in eastern Europe and other parts of India as well, which open up the questions about how pervasive and insidious such practices were, and how entrenched the patriarchal values were.
Keywords: kulhs, irrigation, woman sacrifice, waterways, state formation, rituals, clan, honor-killing
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