משפטי ארץ א, עופרה תשס"ב, עמ' 151-137
35 Pages Posted: 27 Jan 2016 Last revised: 10 Apr 2016
Date Written: January 27, 2016
תקציר בעברית: הפשרה, כמונח וכמוסד משפטי, מעלה כמה וכמה קשיים, הן בהבנת משמעותו המילונית של המונח הן בהבנת טיבה ומהותה של הפשרה, הן בהגדרת התנאים להפעלתה, הן בתפיסת יחסה אל הדין, והן בעניין היחס בין המונח לבין המוסד.
English Abstract: Pesharah (Compromise) is understood to mean a replacement of the law. It results in a ruling which is (usually) different than that of the same case had it been adjudicated according to the law, and is thus considered more just.
This definition cannot represent the attitude of Jewish law wherein the law is considered divine and therefore just, and has to be meticulously adhered to.
Linguistic research of the Hebrew root PSHR reveals that it connotes “to cut, to divide, to separate”. Since all Hebrew words which define contracts and agreements also possess this meaning, it is easy to demonstrate that the noun pesharah means “an agreement”. Any agreement can be named as pesharah regardless of its contents. Accordingly, I submit that in the context of the legal process, pesharah means “an agreement by the parties to be adjudicated”. This is an agreement for arbitration, as in ‘compromisum’ in Roman law: to agree upon a judge.
I also submit that there is no difference in the laws and procedures which have to be applied to both routes. Hence, the decisions made in either route will be the same.
Pesharah changes the legal process from being based upon the power of the law and establishes it upon the mutual agreement of the parties involved. Hence, judges need not fear from a heavenly punishment for handing down an incorrect judgment (even by an unavoidable mistake), because by pesharah the divine and metaphysical characteristics of the judgment are removed and it is transformed into a human practice which attempts to conciliate and bring peace between people.
Note: Downloadable document is in Hebrew.
Keywords: פשרה, מוסד, מונח, קושי, מהות, הגדרה, תנאים, דין
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation
(Compromise) (January 27, 2016). משפטי ארץ א, עופרה תשס"ב, עמ' 151-137; Hebrew University of Jerusalem Legal Research Paper. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2723380