Application of Expectancy Violations Theory to Communication with and Judgments About Embodied Agents During a Decision-Making Task

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), vol. 91(July), pp. 24–36, Forthcoming

47 Pages Posted: 15 Feb 2016 Last revised: 9 May 2016

See all articles by Judee K. Burgoon

Judee K. Burgoon

University of Arizona - Eller College of Management

Joseph Bonito

University of Arizona

Paul Benjamin Lowry

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University - Pamplin College of Business

Sean Humphreys

Brigham Young University - Department of Information Systems

Gregory D Moody

University of Nevada, Las Vegas - College of Business

James Gaskin

Brigham Young University - Marriott School; Case Western Reserve University - Department of Information Systems

Justin Giboney

University of Arizona - Department of Management Information Systems

Date Written: July 31, 2016

Abstract

Because users treat embodied agents (EAs) as social actors, users hold expectations about human-to-EA communication (HtEAC) similar to those in human-to-human communication. This study extends Expectancy Violations Theory (EVT) to examine how different forms of interfaces that confirm or violate user expectations affect the communication process, social judgments, ability to influence, and accuracy of recall associated with HtEAC. Positive violations of expectancy are acts or characteristics of the EA that are unexpected but evaluated favorably by the human partner. Results suggest that when the EA deviates from expectations, effects on the HtEAC process and related outcomes can be more pronounced. EAs evaluated as positive violations had more favorable effects on task attractiveness than other human or EA interaction partners. As predicted by EVT, EA interactions that were positively evaluated elicited more perceived connectedness, feelings of being understood/receptivity, and dependability than those EA interactions evaluated negatively. However, negative violations did not produce worse outcomes than negative confirmations. EVT offers a useful lens for examining the communication effects of HtEAC and points to benefits of creating EAs that evoke positive violations of expectancy.

Keywords: Expectancy Violations Theory, embodied agents, human-to-Embodied Agent communication, expectations, social judgment, decision making

Suggested Citation

Burgoon, Judee K. and Bonito, Joseph and Lowry, Paul Benjamin and Humphreys, Sean and Moody, Gregory Daniel and Gaskin, James and Giboney, Justin, Application of Expectancy Violations Theory to Communication with and Judgments About Embodied Agents During a Decision-Making Task (July 31, 2016). International Journal of Human-Computer Studies (IJHCS), vol. 91(July), pp. 24–36, Forthcoming, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2732037

Judee K. Burgoon

University of Arizona - Eller College of Management ( email )

McClelland Hall
P.O. Box 210108
Tucson, AZ 85721-0108
United States

Joseph Bonito

University of Arizona ( email )

Department of History
Tucson, AZ 85721
United States

Paul Benjamin Lowry (Contact Author)

Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University - Pamplin College of Business ( email )

1016 Pamplin Hall
Blacksburg, VA 24061
United States

Sean Humphreys

Brigham Young University - Department of Information Systems ( email )

510 Tanner Building
Marriott School
Provo, UT 84602
United States

Gregory Daniel Moody

University of Nevada, Las Vegas - College of Business ( email )

4505 S. Maryland Parkway
Las Vegas, NV 89154
United States

HOME PAGE: http://https://faculty.unlv.edu/wpmu/gmoody/

James Gaskin

Brigham Young University - Marriott School ( email )

United States

Case Western Reserve University - Department of Information Systems ( email )

United States

Justin Giboney

University of Arizona - Department of Management Information Systems ( email )

AZ
United States

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