Spill-Over Effects of ICT Use in School to Thai Communities,
16 Pages Posted: 25 Mar 2016
Date Written: October 2010
Policymakers around the world are considering whether to invest in putting information and communications technology (ICT) in schools. While the primary impact of this ICT is likely to be on the education that students get while at schools, there may be additional effects that are worth considering: adoption of ICT in the households of these students, and impact on utilization of adults who live with these students. Through an econometric analysis of survey data collected while Thailand was in the process of deploying ICT in schools, this paper first shows how the presence of students in a household affects both household adoption and adult utilization. Then the study examines how this effect changes depending on the extent to which students can access ICT at school. The ICT considered consists of computers and Internet connections. The study finds that households with students are far more likely to have adopted ICT, and this effect is stronger for students at higher educational levels, but adults in those households are no more likely to use ICT. Thus, not only is adult utilization relatively unaffected by the presence of students, but it is also relatively unaffected by the presence of ICT in the adult’s own home. For these adults, clearly making ICT more available and less costly will not increase Internet use. When a student accesses ICT at school, there is a spill-over effect on his or her household ICT adoption and ICT utilization by family members. The largest spill-over effect occurs with primary schools: making computers available in primary school increases household computer adoption somewhat, and adding Internet in the schools greatly increases both household adoption and adult utilization of computers and Internet. For junior high and high schools, computer access in schools alone has little impact on ICT adoption at home, and putting Internet access into high schools shows a small substitution effect on Internet adoption at home. Making Internet available in high schools may thereby reduce residential penetration. As for adult utilization, giving student s at all educational levels access to computers without Internet has little impact on the ICT use of family members, but making Internet accessible in schools as well has a large spill-over effect on Internet usage of adults. In addition to the direct educational value, policy-makers should also consider these indirect bene fits when making decisions about supporting ICT in schools.
Keywords: ICT in school, Spillover effect, ICT adoption, ICT utilization, Internet, ICT in Thailand
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