False Confessions in the Twenty-First Century
The Champion magazine, (2016) Forthcoming
23 Pages Posted: 5 May 2016 Last revised: 17 May 2016
Date Written: April 1, 2016
Although the Miranda decision changed police behavior insofar as they routinely provide at least a nominal Miranda warning to suspects, police have strategically adapted their warning practices so that they do not inhibit self-incrimination by suspects. Thus, Miranda has done little to reduce the risk of wrongful convictions resulting from false confessions. This article suggests ways that criminal defense attorneys can use existing studies about the causes of false confessions to mount false confession defenses. Studies have repeatedly shown that if a false confession is introduced into evidence at trial -- even if it is obtained under questionable conditions, supported by no independent evidence, contradicted by substantial evidence, and ultimately proven false -- it is highly likely to lead to a wrongful conviction. For this reason, it is incumbent upon criminal defense attorneys to be well-versed in the social science research on interrogation and confession in order to aggressively and effectively litigate false confession cases.
Keywords: Miranda v. Arizona, police interrogation, false confessions, wrongful convictions, criminal law, law enforcement
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