An Overview of Pak - Soviet/Russia Relations

Central Asia, No.71. Winter 2012, pp. 1-28

23 Pages Posted: 27 Apr 2016

See all articles by Sarfraz Khan

Sarfraz Khan

University of Peshawar - Area Study Centre (Russia,China & Central Asia)

Noor Amin

University of Peshawar

Date Written: November 1, 2014


Pak-Soviet/Russia relations have survived several strains since 1947. Prior to the partition, All India Muslim League and Indian National Congress had been adhering to different, even conflicting, ideologies. Muslim League formed by Muslim landed elites, belonging to various regions of Indian sub-continent, catered to the needs of the Muslim landed nobility, civil servants and lawyers. Indian National Congress claimed to be representative of Indian peasants and ideologically tilted towards socialism.

Following independence, the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was invited to visit USSR, in 1949, he instead, reached USA on an official visit. Moreover, Pakistan under the influence of landed nobility, western educated politicians, military and civil servants tilted towards USA and did not approve socialistic policies of the USSR. Despite a lukewarm behavior of Pakistan, USSR gave enough financial and technical assistance to Pakistan in the shape of establishing Steel Mills at Karachi and provided interest free loans. Pakistan, however, alleged that USSR has played inimical role in the East Pakistan debacle and the Soviet Union did not appreciate Pakistan’s opposition to the Soviet role in Afghanistan. Russia also alleged Pakistan to have a role in inciting the Chechen and Daghistan uprising and Pakistan leveled similar charges against Russia of fueling insurgency in Baluchistan.

Despite unenviable past, there seems to exist much potential of developing Pak-Russia bilateral cooperation in the fields of diplomacy, trade, economy, science, technology, mining, prevention of drugs, extremism and terrorism, though numerous opportunities and much time has previously been wasted.

Suggested Citation

Khan, Sarfraz and Amin, Noor, An Overview of Pak - Soviet/Russia Relations (November 1, 2014). Central Asia, No.71. Winter 2012, pp. 1-28. Available at SSRN:

Sarfraz Khan (Contact Author)

University of Peshawar - Area Study Centre (Russia,China & Central Asia) ( email )

University of Peshawar, Peshawar, Pakistan
Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa 25120


Noor Amin

University of Peshawar

Peshawar, Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa 25125

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