경제특구 입주 외국인투자기업의 성과 분석 (Performance Analysis on Foreign-invested Firms in the SEZ)

KDI Journal of Economic Policy, vol. 37, supplementary issue, 2015, 86-121

36 Pages Posted: 23 May 2016

See all articles by Yong-Seok Choi

Yong-Seok Choi

Kyung-Hee University

Yeongkwan Song

Korea Development Institute (KDI)

Date Written: March 2, 2015

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 한국정부는 FDI 국내 유치를 위해 외국인투자에 특례와 지원을 제공하는 경제특구를 도입하였으나 성과가 미흡하다는 문제의식이 존재한다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 실증분석을 통해 노동생산성, 영업이익률, 투자성향, 혁신성향, 고용성향 등의 기업단위 성과가 경제특구에 입주한 외국인투자기업과 국내기업 간에, 그리고 외국인투자기업들 간에 유의한 차이를 나타내고 있는지를 회귀분석과 PSM 분석을 통해 살펴보았다. 본 논문의 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 노동생산성 및 영업이익률 측면에서 살펴보았을 때 외국인투자기업들이 국내기업들에 비해 효율성 및 수익성에 있어 더 높은 성과를 나타낸다는 가설을 지지할 실증적 증거는 발견할 수 없었다. 둘째, 투자성향에 있어서는 외국인투자지역에 분포한 외국인투자기업들이 국내기업들에 비해 높은 투자성향을 보였다. 셋째, 연구개발투자 측면에 있어 외국인투자기업 전체적으로는 국내기업에 비해 높은 투자성향을 보인 것으로 나타나나 이것이 경제특구정책에 의한 것임을 나타내는 실증적 증거는 존재하지 않는다. 교육훈련투자에 있어서는 비특구 외국인투자기업의 역할이 가장 크며, 특구지역 중에서는 경제자유구역에 위치한 기업들의 교육훈련투자가 국내기업들보다 더 높다는 실증적 증거가 발견되었다. 마지막으로 고용성향에 있어서는 외국인투자기업들의 성과가 더 높았으나 이것이 경제특구정책에 의한 것임을 나타내는 실증적 증거가 존재하지는 않았다.

English Abstract: To attract more FDI inflows, the Korean government has designated several special economic zones (SEZs), offering various advantages and support to the FDI. There is, however, a shared acknowledgement that those efforts have gained little reward. In this regard, this paper empirically analyzes company-level performances of labor productivity, operating profit ratio, propensity to invest and innovate, etc. and then conducts regression analysis and PSM analysis to see whether these performances are meaningfully different between foreign-invested firm and domestic firm and between foreign-invested firms. The main findings of this paper are as follows. First, in the aspects of labor productivity and operating profit ratio, no empirical evidence was found to support the hypothesis that foreign invested firm outperforms domestic firm in efficiency and profitability, Second, in the aspects of propensity to invest, foreign-invested firms in foreign investment zones outperformed domestic firms. Third, in the aspect of R&D investment, overall, foreign-invested firms showed a stronger propensity to invest than domestic firms, but there is no empirical evidence that high propensity to invest was driven by the policy on special economic zones. In the aspect of investment in educational training, empirical evidences were found that the role of foreign-invested firms outside the special zones turned out to be the strongest and that among firms inside special zones, it was those in the free economic zone that outperformed domestic firms. Lastly, foreign-invested firms showed a stronger propensity to employ than domestic firms, but there is no empirical evidence that high propensity to employ was driven by the policy on special economic zones.

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: 외국인투자 (FDI), 경제특구 (SEZ), 2007 년 금융위기 (Financial Crisis of 2007)

JEL Classification: F23, O38

Suggested Citation

Choi, Yong-Seok and Song, Yeongkwan, 경제특구 입주 외국인투자기업의 성과 분석 (Performance Analysis on Foreign-invested Firms in the SEZ) (March 2, 2015). KDI Journal of Economic Policy, vol. 37, supplementary issue, 2015, 86-121, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2769468

Yong-Seok Choi (Contact Author)

Kyung-Hee University ( email )

Dongdaemun-ku
Seoul, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Yeongkwan Song

Korea Development Institute (KDI) ( email )

263 Namsejong-ro
Sejong-si 30149
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

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