인도의 중소기업 육성정책과 한 · 인도 협력확대 방안 (A Study on MSME Policy of India and Cooperation between Korea and India)

138 Pages Posted: 1 May 2016 Last revised: 26 Sep 2016

See all articles by Choong Jae Cho

Choong Jae Cho

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Young Chul Song

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy

Date Written: December 30, 2014

Abstract

Korean Abstract: 인도 정부는 2006년 개정된 「중소기업 육성법(MSMED: Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, 2006)」을 통해 그동안 복잡하고 불명확했던 중소기업 범위와 분류 기준을 투자 규모에 따라 극소기업 (Micro), 소기업(Small), 중기업(Medium)으로 다시 제정했다. 새로 제정된 기준으로 실시된 2006/07년 중소기업 센서스를 바탕으로 인도 정부가 추정한 결과에 따르면 2012년 중소기업 수는 약 4,700만 개, 고용자 수는 약 1억 명, 2011년 총생산 규모는 약 18조 루피(3,441억 달러), 총고정자산 규모는 약 13조 루피(2,208억 달러)로 나타났다. 한편 인도의 제조업 생산과 GDP에서 중소기업이 차지하는 비중은 매년 감소하고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 2006년 기준 제조업 생산의 42%를 차지하던 중소기업의 비중은 2011년 37.5%까지 감소했으며, GDP 대비 비중은 2007년 7.8%로 소폭 상승했지만 이후 2011년까지 7.3%까지 낮아진 것으로 나타났다. 인도 중소기업의 대부분은 투자규모가 매우 작은 극소기업(제조업 250만 루피-약 4,250만 원, 비제조업 100만 루피-약 1,700만 원 이하)으로 분류되었다. 이들 극소 중소기업은 정부의 각종 지원 및 혜택조차 받지 못하는 미등록(Unregistered) 형태로 존재하고 있었다. 2006/07년 중소기업 센서스에 따르면 미등록 중소기업에서 극소기업이 차지하는 비중은 99.8%로 나타났다. 미등록 중소기업의 생산 및 투자, 고용에서 극소기업이 차지하는 비중은 각각

88%, 94%, 99.2%로 매우 높게 나타났다. 등록(Registered) 중소기업의 경우 미등록 중소기업과 마찬가지로 극소기업의 비중이 약 95%로 높았지만 생산 및 투자에서 극소기업이 차지하는 비중은 각각 44.2%, 38.1%로 상대적으로 낮게 나타나 인도 중소기업의 대부분은 극소기업인 것으로 나타났다. 한편 인도 중소기업의 대부분이 극소 및 소기업으로 구성되어 있음에도 불구하고 고용 및 수출, 지역사회 균형발전 등 인도 경제에 미치는 긍정적 영향은 상대적으로 크게 나타났다. 인도 중소기업은 인도 전체 고용과 수출의 약 40%를 커버할 뿐만 아니라 도시는 물론 농촌지역까지 상대적으로 고르게 분포하고 있으며, 특히 수출은 최근 10년간 연평균 16% 성장하였다. 이에 따라 인도정부는 2006년 중소기업 육성법 개정 이외에 국가 제조경쟁력 제고 프로그램(NMCP: National Manufacturing Competitiveness Programme), 제12차 5개년 경제개발 계획 등을 통해 중소기업 지원정책 및 프로그램을 강화하고 있다. (후략)

English Abstract: The government of India has recently legislated coverage and classification standards for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) of India based on the size of investment in accordance with the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act amended in 2006.

According to the census of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises implemented in 2006/07 based on the newly amended Act of 2006, a number of MSMEs and employment as of 2012 is estimated to be 47 million and hundreds of millions, respectively. And, total production and fixed asset is estimated to be US$344 billion and US$220 billion dollars, respectively. Meanwhile, a proportion accounted for by MSMEs in total production of manufacturing industry and GDP has decreased, respectively, to 37.5%-7.3% in 2011 from 42%-7.8% in 2006 and 2007.

Most MSEMs of India are classified as Micro-enterprises with small scale of investment (under Rs. 2.5 million for manufacturing, Rs. 1 million for non-manufacturing). These enterprises are unregistered so that they are not qualified for any incentives and support from the government, and account for over 90% (in average) of production, investment and employment of total unregistered MSMEs. Meanwhile, in case of registered enterprises, micro-enterprises comprise about 95% of their number, a level similar to the unregistered sector; they accounts for about 40% of total production and investment, which is smaller in relative terms than the unregistered sector.

As mentioned, although most MSMEs of India are small, their contribution to the Indian economy is very significant, especially for generating employment and balancing the regional economy, in addition to boosting exports. MSMEs of India account for about 40% of total employment, and exports from MSMEs have increased by 16% over the last 10years.

To enhance competitiveness of MSMEs, the Indian government provides MSMEs with various support programs and policies such as the National Manufacturing Competitiveness Program and 12th 5-year national development plan.

Entrance of Korean small and medium enterprises into India increased after the mid 2000s and most are from the manufacturing sector. Small and medium companies from Korea tied to large companies have expanded market share with highly valued products. However, the pace of expansion of small and medium, along with large companies, has been slowing down due to the recent economic slowdown.

Recently, Korean small and medium companies are facing difficulties related to securing market information, land acquisition, local financing; and also excessive dependency on large companies. These represent obstacles that could hinder sustained market expansion of Korean companies in the Indian market. Furthermore, Korean small and medium companies are out of coverage regarding any incentives from the Indian government, because the average size of investment of Korean small and medium companies is about US$1.6 million, far beyond the investment cap to be recognized as an MSME in India.

The Korean government needs to review some creative policies for supporting small and medium companies and promoting cooperation between MSMEs of two countries. First establish a ‘Korea-India Public-Private Cooperation Center for MSME’ in both countries so that it could provide a single window, one-stop service. Second, establishment of a ‘Creative Economic Innovation Center’ is also recommended. It would be able to play the role of promoting and developing innovative agenda for Korean small and medium companies trying to enter the Indian market. Lastly, Korean and Indian governments need to consider creating a joint fund for MSMEs that are trying or have already entered the other side of the market, offering an effective solution for companies experiencing financial problems. The India-Israel joint fund is available for anyone looking for a reference and benchmark. (The rest omitted)

Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.

Keywords: Small and Medium Enterprises --India, Small and MediumEnterprises Development,Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Act, Korea --Economic Cooperation --India

Suggested Citation

Cho, Choong Jae and Song, Young Chul, 인도의 중소기업 육성정책과 한 · 인도 협력확대 방안 (A Study on MSME Policy of India and Cooperation between Korea and India) (December 30, 2014). KIEP Research Paper No. Policy References-14-10. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2772464 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2772464

Choong Jae Cho (Contact Author)

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Young Chul Song

Korea Institute for International Economic Policy ( email )

[30147] Building C, Sejong National Research Compl
Seoul, 370
Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

Register to save articles to
your library

Register

Paper statistics

Downloads
27
Abstract Views
221
PlumX Metrics