Democratization During the Third Wave

Posted: 13 May 2016

See all articles by Stephan M. Haggard

Stephan M. Haggard

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IRPS)

Robert Kaufman

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Department of Political Science

Date Written: May 2016

Abstract

The initial optimism that greeted the onset of the “Third Wave” of democratization has cooled with the instability of many new democracies and the proliferation of stable competitive authoritarian regimes. These disappointments have produced a return to structural theories emphasizing the constraints posed by underdevelopment, resource endowments, inequality, and ethno-religious cleavages. We argue, however, for a sharper focus on the political mechanisms that link such factors to the emergence of democracy, including the extent of institutionalization in new democracies and the still understudied role of civil society and the capacity for collective action. The international dimensions of democratization also require closer analysis. We also underline a methodological point: The quest for an overarching theory of democracy and democratization may be misguided. Generalizations supported by cross-national statistical work yield numerous anomalies and indicate the need for approaches that emphasize combinations of causal factors, alternative pathways, and equifinality.

Suggested Citation

Haggard, Stephan M. and Kaufman, Robert, Democratization During the Third Wave (May 2016). Annual Review of Political Science, Vol. 19, pp. 125-144, 2016. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2779550 or http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-042114-015137

Stephan M. Haggard (Contact Author)

University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies (IRPS) ( email )

9500 Gilman Drive
La Jolla, CA 92093-0519
United States
858-534-5781 (Phone)
858-534-3939 (Fax)

Robert Kaufman

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey - Department of Political Science ( email )

New Brunswick, NJ 08901
United States

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