The Law of 180-Day Exclusivity
Food & Drug Law Journal, Forthcoming
104 Pages Posted: 31 May 2016 Last revised: 24 Jun 2016
Date Written: May 29, 2016
In 1984, Congress created a statutory pathway for approval of generic drug applications and included an incentive for generic applicants to challenge the patents claiming the reference drugs on which they based their applications. The first generic applicant to file an ANDA with a patent challenge is eligible for 180 days of generic market exclusivity. This article is the fourth in a series of articles describing the resulting body of law, as interpreted and applied by FDA (in regulations, guidances, citizen petition responses, and individual decisions awarding and denying exclusivity) and the courts. The heart of the article is section II, which discusses a series of twenty-eight discrete interpretive issues, arranged in five categories: which rules apply, earning exclusivity, forfeiture of exclusivity, commencing the exclusivity term, and enjoyment (use) of the exclusivity term. It devotes considerable attention to developments since 2009 (our last article): new issues that have arisen relating to 180–day exclusivity generally, such as premature notice of paragraph IV certification, as well as the body of law emerging around the forfeiture provisions enacted in 2003. Section III briefly discusses three policy issue arising out of the 180–day exclusivity scheme: the impact of the scheme on subsequent generic applicants, the relationship between the scheme and patent settlements, and authorized generics — noting key judicial, legislative, and academic commentary on each. The Article concludes with a discussion of recent and pending legislative proposals that indirectly or directly address 180–day exclusivity and notes the exclusivity for interchangeable biologics that was modeled, in part, on the generic drug precedent.
Keywords: Generics, Brand Drugs, Hatch-Waxman, Antitrust, Intellectual Property, Patents, Biosimilars, Authorized Generics, New Drugs, FDA, PTO
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