TSCALE: A New Multidimensional Scaling Procedure Based on Tversky's Contrast Model

Psychometrika, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 43-69 (1992)

Posted: 3 Jun 2016

See all articles by Wayne S. DeSarbo

Wayne S. DeSarbo

Pennsylvania State University

Michael D. Johnson

Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan

Ajay K Manrai

University of Delaware

Lalita A. Manrai

University of Delaware

Elizabeth Edwards

University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business

Date Written: March 1992

Abstract

Tversky's contrast model of proximity was initially formulated to account for the observed violations of the metric axioms often found in empirical proximity data. This set-theoretic approach models the similarity/dissimilarity between any two stimuli as a linear (or ratio) combination of measures of the common and distinctive features of the two stimuli. This paper proposes a new spatial multidimensional scaling (MDS) procedure called TSCALE based on Tversky's linear contrast model for the analysis of generally asymmetric three-way, two-mode proximity data. We first review the basic structure of Tversky's conceptual contrast model. A brief discussion of alternative MDS procedures to accommodate asymmetric proximity data is also provided. The technical details of the TSCALE procedure are given, as well as the program options that allow for the estimation of a number of different model specifications. The nonlinear estimation framework is discussed, as are the results of a modest Monte Carlo analysis. Two consumer psychology applications are provided: one involving perceptions of fast-food restaurants and the other regarding perceptions of various competitive brands of cola soft-drinks. Finally, other applications and directions for future research are mentioned.

Keywords: multidimensional scaling, asymmetric proximity data, Tversky's contrast model, consumer psychology

Suggested Citation

DeSarbo, Wayne S. and Johnson, Michael David and Manrai, Ajay K and Manrai, Lalita A. and Edwards, Elizabeth, TSCALE: A New Multidimensional Scaling Procedure Based on Tversky's Contrast Model (March 1992). Psychometrika, Volume 57, Issue 1, pp 43-69 (1992). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2788185

Wayne S. DeSarbo (Contact Author)

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

University Park
State College, PA 16802
United States

Michael David Johnson

Stephen M. Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan ( email )

701 Tappan Street
Ann Arbor, MI MI 48109-1234
United States

Ajay K Manrai

University of Delaware ( email )

214 MBNA America Hall
Orchard Road & Amstel Avenue
Newark, DE 19716-2710
United States
302-831-1770 (Phone)
302-831-4196 (Fax)

Lalita A. Manrai

University of Delaware ( email )

Newark, DE 19711
United States

Elizabeth Edwards

University of Michigan, Stephen M. Ross School of Business

701 Tappan Street
Ann Arbor, MI MI 48109
United States

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