Measuring Community Resilience: The Role of the Community Rating System (CRS)

38 Pages Posted: 15 Jun 2016 Last revised: 23 Jun 2016

See all articles by Ajita Atreya

Ajita Atreya

University of Pennsylvania - Center for Risk Management and Decision Processes

Howard Kunreuther

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER); University of Pennsylvania - Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center

Date Written: June 13, 2016

Abstract

Community resilience has become an important concern due to the increasing scale and frequency of natural and technological disasters. Although several frameworks have been introduced to measure resilience, there has been no systematic process that captures all the key sectors of a community. This paper introduces an holistic approach to measure community resilience by specifying the Human, Social, Physical, Natural, Financial and Political sectors of a community [labeled the six capitals (6Cs)] and characterizing four properties of resilience (4Rs) (robustness, resourcefulness, redundancy and rapidity). The 6C-4R framework is linked to the National Flood Insurance Program’s (NFIP) Community Rating System (CRS) that rewards communities for adopting flood risk reduction activities using illustrative examples of resilience strategies adopted by communities and examining the challenges facing the city of New Orleans today after suffering severe losses from Hurricane Katrina. We conclude the paper with a case study of Cedar Rapids, Iowa that joined the CRS in 2010 following a severe flood in 2008. The community has recently undertaken several efforts to reduce future flood losses, notably higher regulatory standards, such as requiring buildings to be higher than the base flood elevation and acquisition and relocation of property to less flood prone areas. Although the CRS captures several sectors of a community, it lacks a measure of social vulnerabilities, which is an important element for community resilience. Future studies are needed to show how one can integrate measures of social vulnerabilities with the CRS for a more holistic view of community resilience.

Keywords: resilience, disasters, National Flood Insurance Program, Community Rating System

JEL Classification: G22, Q54

Suggested Citation

Atreya, Ajita and Kunreuther, Howard C. and Kunreuther, Howard C., Measuring Community Resilience: The Role of the Community Rating System (CRS) (June 13, 2016). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2788230 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2788230

Ajita Atreya (Contact Author)

University of Pennsylvania - Center for Risk Management and Decision Processes ( email )

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Howard C. Kunreuther

University of Pennsylvania - Wharton Risk Management and Decision Processes Center ( email )

3819 Chestnut Street
Suite 130
Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States
215-898-4589 (Phone)

National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)

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