공공투자사업 입찰에서의 낙찰자 결정요인 분석 (Analysis on Determinants of Winner in Public Procurement Auction)
KDI Policy Study 2012-08, 1-46
59 Pages Posted: 9 Jun 2016
Date Written: December 31, 2012
Korean Abstract: 본 연구에서는 가용한 입찰 및 낙찰 자료를 활용하여 다양한 입찰제도의 성과를 분석하여 입찰제도에 대한 이해를 제고하고자 한다. 공공시설 조달의 경우, 최적의 사업시행자를 선택하기 위해 입찰제도를 활용하고 있지만 그 평가는 가격요소에만 국한되어 있지 않다. 최근의 경매이론은 가격요소와 더불어 비가격요소를 동시에 고려하여 평가점수를 산정한 후 낙찰자를 선정하는 다차원 경매제도(multi-dimensional auction)를 설명하려는 시도를 하고 있다. 다차원 경매 입찰제도하에서 평가점수체계를 보완해 비가격요소와 가격요소의 평가 배점을 조정해 나가는 것이 PQ 후 가격경쟁방식보다 상대적으로 우월함이 이론적으로 나타난다. 하지만 현실에서 평가 배점을 조정하는 방식을 최적화하여 운용하는 데에는 한계가 존재한다. (이하 생략).
English Abstract: The present study tries to identify determinants of winner in public procurement auction. In most public procurement auction systems, such as turkey, qualification, and BTL (build-transfer-lease), evaluation of a bid is not limited to price factor, rather applied to non-price factor. Recently multi-dimension auction theory has been developed to analyze those auction systems. Theoretically, scoring auction which evaluates price and non-price factors at the same time turns out to be superior to price competition after pre-qualification. However there is explicit limit to apply this result to practical operation.
Qualification is one of multi-dimension procurement auction systems in Korea, which covers projects less than 30 Billion KRW. Empirical result shows that price factor is the main determinant of winner in qualification. However, current qualification system is criticized since non-price factor has negligible effect in determining winner while score in price factor tends to be given randomly. This fact indicates that improvement of current qualification system should be needed.
In the case of turnkey, both price factor and non-price factor have significant effect on determining winner. Under turnkey system, collusion among bidders are possible and several collusion cases have been detected. If weight of score on price factor were increased, then possibility of collusion would be decreased. As score in non-price factor is given by qualitative evaluation of evaluators, decreasing weight of score on non-price factor could enhance transparency and fairness in evaluation process.
Under BTL evaluation system, both price factor and non-price factor are determinants of winner or of preferred bidder. Interestingly, score in price factor and that in non-price factor are positively correlated, which indicates that a bidder with high score in price factor tends to get high score in non-price factor in bidding stage.
This study provides empirical results on multi-dimension procurement auction and explains bidding behavior during bidding process. Further research should focus on linking bidding behavior in a certain procurement system with purpose of that system.
Note: Downloadable document is in Korean.
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