The Use of Leniency in EU Cartel Enforcement: An Assessment after Twenty Years
45 Pages Posted: 12 Jun 2016 Last revised: 6 Feb 2018
Date Written: June 10, 2016
Since 1996, the European Commission has been operating a leniency programme, under which companies cooperating with its cartel investigations can obtain immunity from fines or a reduction of fines. Leniency plays a prominent role in EU cartel enforcement today. This paper assesses the positive effects and the possible negative effects of leniency, in the light of twenty years of experience.
Keywords: cartels, antitrust, enforcement, EU, leniency, recidivism
JEL Classification: K00, K14, K21, K33, K42, L40
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation