Culturally Antagonistic Memes and the Zika Virus: An Experimental Test

Journal of Risk Research, Forthcoming

Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 554

Annenberg Public Policy Center/Cultural Cognition Project Working Paper No. 3

37 Pages Posted: 22 Jul 2016 Last revised: 7 Nov 2016

Dan M. Kahan

Yale University - Law School

Kathleen Hall Jamieson

University of Pennsylvania

Asheley R Landrum

Annenberg Public Policy Center

Kenneth Winneg

Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania

Date Written: July 18, 2016

Abstract

This paper examines a remedy for a defect in existing accounts of public risk perceptions. The accounts in question feature two dynamics: the affect heuristic, which emphasizes the impact of visceral feelings on information processing; and the cultural cognition thesis, which describes the tendency of individuals to form beliefs that reflect and reinforce their group commitments. The defect is the failure of these two dynamics, when combined, to explain the peculiar selectivity of public risk controversies: despite their intensity and disruptiveness, such controversies occur less frequently than the affect heuristic and the cultural cognition thesis seem to predict. To account for this aspect of public risk perceptions, the paper describes a model that adds the phenomenon of culturally antagonistic memes — argumentative tropes that fuse positions on risk with contested visions of the best life. Arising adventitiously, antagonistic memes transform affect and cultural cognition from consensus-generating, truth-convergent influences on information processing into conflictual, identity-protective ones. The paper supports this model with experimental results involving perceptions of the risk of the Zika virus: a general population sample of U.S. subjects, whose members were not polarized when exposed to neutral information, formed culturally polarized affective reactions when exposed to information that was pervaded with antagonistic memes linking Zika to global warming; when exposed to comparable information linking Zika to unlawful immigration, the opposed affective stances of the subjects flipped in direction. Normative and prescriptive implications of these results are discussed.

Keywords: Affec Heuristic, Cultural Cognition, Risk Perception, Risk Communication, Zika Virus

Suggested Citation

Kahan, Dan M. and Jamieson, Kathleen Hall and Landrum, Asheley R and Winneg, Kenneth, Culturally Antagonistic Memes and the Zika Virus: An Experimental Test (July 18, 2016). Journal of Risk Research, Forthcoming; Yale Law & Economics Research Paper No. 554; Annenberg Public Policy Center/Cultural Cognition Project Working Paper No. 3. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2811294

Dan M. Kahan (Contact Author)

Yale University - Law School ( email )

P.O. Box 208215
New Haven, CT 06520-8215
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.culturalcognition.net/kahan

Kathleen Hall Jamieson

University of Pennsylvania ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

Asheley R Landrum

Annenberg Public Policy Center ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

HOME PAGE: http://asheleylandrum.com

Kenneth Winneg

Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvania ( email )

Philadelphia, PA 19104
United States

HOME PAGE: http://www.annenbergpublicpolicycenter.org

Paper statistics

Downloads
329
Rank
73,899
Abstract Views
1,586