Covering: Mutable Characteristics and Perceptions of Voice in the U.S. Supreme Court

80 Pages Posted: 1 Aug 2016 Last revised: 10 Feb 2020

See all articles by Daniel L. Chen

Daniel L. Chen

Directeur de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse School of Economics, Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse, University of Toulouse Capitole, Toulouse, France

Yosh Halberstam

University of Toronto

Alan Yu

University of Chicago

Date Written: April 30, 2017

Abstract

The emphasis on “fit” as a hiring criterion has raised the spectrum of a new form of subtle discrimination (Yoshino 1998; Bertrand and Duflo 2016). Under complete markets, correlations between employee characteristics and outcomes persist only if there exists animus for the marginal employer (Becker 1957), but who is the marginal employer for mutable characteristics? Using data on 1,901 U.S. Supreme Court oral arguments between 1998 and 2012, we document that voice-based snap judgments based on lawyers’ identical introductory sentences, “Mr. Chief Justice, (and) may it please the Court?”, predict court outcomes. The connection between vocal characteristics and court outcomes is specific only to perceptions of masculinity and not other characteristics, even when judgment is based on less than three seconds of exposure to a lawyer’s speech sample. Consistent with employers irrationally favoring lawyers with masculine voices, perceived masculinity is negatively correlated with winning and the negative correlation is larger in more masculine-sounding industries. The first lawyer to speak is the main driver. Among these petitioners, males below median in masculinity are 7 percentage points more likely to win in the Supreme Court. Justices appointed by Democrats, but not Republicans, vote for less- masculine men. Female lawyers are also coached to be more masculine and women’s perceived femininity predict court outcomes. Republicans, more than Democrats, vote for more feminine-sounding females. A de-biasing strategy is tested and shown to reduce evaluators’ tendency to perceive masculine voices as more likely to win. Perceived masculinity explains 3-10% additional variance compared to the current best prediction model of Supreme Court votes.

Keywords: Identity, Phonology, Judicial Decision-Making

JEL Classification: J15, J78, K41

Suggested Citation

Chen, Daniel L. and Halberstam, Yosh and Yu, Alan, Covering: Mutable Characteristics and Perceptions of Voice in the U.S. Supreme Court (April 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2816241 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2816241

Daniel L. Chen (Contact Author)

Directeur de Recherche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Toulouse School of Economics, Institute for Advanced Study in Toulouse, University of Toulouse Capitole, Toulouse, France ( email )

Toulouse School of Economics
1, Esplanade de l'Université
Toulouse, 31080
France

Yosh Halberstam

University of Toronto ( email )

Department of Economics
150 St George St.
Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G7
Canada

Alan Yu

University of Chicago ( email )

1101 East 58th Street
Chicago, IL 60637
United States

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