Condorcet's Paradox and Puerto Rico Status

12 Pages Posted: 10 Aug 2016 Last revised: 17 Apr 2019

See all articles by F. E. Guerra-Pujol

F. E. Guerra-Pujol

University of Central Florida; Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico

Date Written: April 15, 2019


This is the third of three papers by the author on Puerto Rico’s constitutional status. In this paper, the author models the deadlock over Puerto Rico’s political status as a Condorcet cycle. Part I of the article provides a brief historical overview of Puerto Rico's centuries-old status debate. Next, Part II explains why Puerto Rico’s constitutional status can be modelled as a Condorcet cycle. Lastly, Part III presents a tentative solution to this stalemate: the creation of a Bayesian ballot in which voters would be allowed to express the relative intensity of their preferences for each status option.

Keywords: Condorcet cycle, Bayesian voting, Puerto Rico

JEL Classification: H77

Suggested Citation

Guerra-Pujol, F. E., Condorcet's Paradox and Puerto Rico Status (April 15, 2019). Available at SSRN: or

F. E. Guerra-Pujol (Contact Author)

University of Central Florida ( email )

Orlando, FL 32816
United States


Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico ( email )

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