Third-Party Policing Approaches against Organized Crime: an Evaluation of the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances

Hoshino, T., Kamada, T. Third-Party Policing Approaches Against Organized Crime: An Evaluation of the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances. J Quant Criminol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-020-09466-6

33 Pages Posted: 25 Aug 2016 Last revised: 17 Aug 2020

See all articles by Tetsuya Hoshino

Tetsuya Hoshino

Pennsylvania State University

Takuma Kamada

Osaka University - Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP)

Date Written: August 2020

Abstract

Objective: Third-party policing (TPP) refers to police efforts to persuade or coerce third parties to take some responsibility for crime control and prevention. The Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances (YEOs) of Japan aim to combat organized crime syndicates---the yakuza. Consistent with the principles of TPP, the YEOs prohibit third parties (i.e., non-yakuza individuals) from providing any bene t to the yakuza. We argue that the effectiveness of the YEOs may depend on the strategic relationship among yakuza syndicates, where yakuza syndicates choose their power strategically to gain advantages over competition among rival yakuza syndicates.

Methods: We use unique data on the yakuza and construct a regional concentration index of yakuza syndicates. Exploiting prefecture-level variation in the YEOs' enactment dates, we apply a di erence-in-di erences approach, while allowing for heterogeneity of the YEOs' effect by the concentration of yakuza syndicates.

Results: The YEOs decrease the number of yakuza members and the effect of YEOs is greater in regions with lower concentration levels of yakuza syndicates. Given that yakuza members decrease by about 30% during the period of our study, our estimates suggest that the YEOs on average contribute to about 20% of a recent reduction of yakuza members.

Conclusions: The YEOs are related to TPP strategies that rely on coercive techniques, and thus our results suggest the effectiveness of TPP strategies against organized crime. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of the YEOs' effect suggests the effectiveness of enforcement policies that intensively target regions with lower concentration of organized crime.

Keywords: Third-Party Policing, Organized Crime, Illegal Markets, Quasi-Experiment

JEL Classification: K4, K14, K42

Suggested Citation

Hoshino, Tetsuya and Kamada, Takuma, Third-Party Policing Approaches against Organized Crime: an Evaluation of the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances (August 2020). Hoshino, T., Kamada, T. Third-Party Policing Approaches Against Organized Crime: An Evaluation of the Yakuza Exclusion Ordinances. J Quant Criminol (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10940-020-09466-6, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2827367 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2827367

Tetsuya Hoshino

Pennsylvania State University ( email )

University Park
State College, PA 16802
United States

Takuma Kamada (Contact Author)

Osaka University - Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP) ( email )

1-31, Machikaneyama
Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043
Japan

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