Biodiversity Offsets in New Zealand: Challenges, Opportunities, Options

15 Pages Posted: 26 Aug 2016

See all articles by Vernon Rive

Vernon Rive

Auckland University of Technology

Date Written: December 23, 2013


The purpose of this paper is to examine, in a largely non-technical way, key issues and challenges associated with the use of biodiversity offsets in New Zealand. After describing the state of New Zealand biodiversity (as far as it is known), the existing legal and policy framework is briefly summarised. This is followed by a discussion on notable issues that have been identified to date.

A number of ‘best practice’ guidance documents are surveyed, and alternative governance models discussed. Whether there is effective monitoring and enforcement of approved offset arrangements is also considered, drawing on recent research.

Finally, future developments are examined, including the prospects of national policy guidance and statutory reform.

Suggested Citation

Rive, Vernon, Biodiversity Offsets in New Zealand: Challenges, Opportunities, Options (December 23, 2013). Available at SSRN: or

Vernon Rive (Contact Author)

Auckland University of Technology ( email )

AUT City Campus
Private Bag 92006
Auckland, 1142
New Zealand
09 921 9999 (Phone)


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