Citadels: Increased Robustness and Better Information Integration Than Datacenters of Competing Companies

12 Pages Posted: 9 Sep 2016 Last revised: 4 Aug 2020

See all articles by Carl Hewitt

Carl Hewitt

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

Date Written: September 7, 2016


A Citadel is an Actor [Hewitt, et. al. 1973] that coordinates large-scale operations using a massive inconsistency-robust ontology [Guarino and Musen 2015, Hewitt 2016-2019] thereby providing the following:

• Faster response time than datacenters because interactive communication is greatly reduced with remote datacenters. In order to implement Scalable Intelligent Systems [Hewitt 2019], future hologlasses [Gurman 2017, Mundy 2016] will require very short latencies in communicating with a large inconsistency-robust ontology in a Citadel.

• Better information integration than datacenters because information is not isolated in datacenters of competing companies. Instead, information of a citizen is processed locally in a Citadel using a massive inconsistency-robust ontology.

Consumer Citadels need a profitable business model that is more convenient and efficient for consumers than storing their sensitive information in datacenters paid by advertising targeted using personal sensitive information. Instead, a Citadel running on a consumer's equipment can seek out and help evaluate appropriate offers from commerce agents. Such commerce agents can earn commissions and fees from merchants when the referral is exercised. Consequently, merchants will no longer be burdened by having to pay for inefficient advertising that annoys potential customers. Instead, businesses can provide their information to commerce agents that aggregate and package it for consumers' Citadels to be used in evaluating offers that can be filtered, integrated, and presented according to citizen needs and preferences. In order to be competitive, Citadels must be more convenient and provide better response time than datacenters of competing companies. Of course, a Citadel can query commercial datacenters (such as Amazon, Facebook, Google, and LinkedIn) as well as other Citadels.

Citadels can provide many additional services for their customers. For example, they can help automate subscriptions to media including new services. In this way, they help revive the economic foundation of the local press. Also, Citadels can help citizens participate in representative government.

Citadels offer an opportunity to shift away from the dominant consumer software business model based on mass surveillance using datacenters. If the information desired by government security agencies is not stored in datacenters, then they will not be driven to standardize operations in datacenters. Consequently, companies will not be so restricted innovating operations in their datacenters thereby avoiding the surveillance operations trap.

Keywords: Actor Model, Backdoors, International Commerce, Representative Government, Inference Robustness, IoT, Citadels, Mass Surveillance, Sensitive Information

Suggested Citation

Hewitt, Carl, Citadels: Increased Robustness and Better Information Integration Than Datacenters of Competing Companies (September 7, 2016). Available at SSRN: or

Carl Hewitt (Contact Author)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) ( email )

77 Massachusetts Avenue
50 Memorial Drive
Cambridge, MA 02139-4307
United States

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