Formal Institutionalization of Military Rule: The 21st Amendment in Pakistan
Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) Briefing Paper No. 71
9 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2016
Date Written: May 4, 2015
The first ‘regular’ transfer of power between two civilian governments in Pakistan manifested itself in the aftermath of the 2013 general elections. Many celebrated this shift as a positive sign of democratic consolidation. However, the appreciation of this allegedly ‘new democratic wave’ ignores the resilience of decade-old authoritarian, and anti-democratic patterns. The military still dominates all significant political decision-making processes. Furthermore, with the 21st constitutional amendment the soldiers were able to further entrench their formal role in the political-institutional setup. This seriously challenges the notions of civilian supremacy, which is unfortunate, since civilian control of the armed forces is a necessary constituent for democracy and democratic consolidation.
Keywords: Pakistan, Army, Constitution, Amendment, Civil-Military Relations
JEL Classification: H56, I28, J18, J68, H50, H60, H70
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