Formal Institutionalization of Military Rule: The 21st Amendment in Pakistan

Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) Briefing Paper No. 71

9 Pages Posted: 16 Sep 2016  

Siegfried O. Wolf

University of Heidelberg - South Asia Institute (SAI)

Date Written: May 4, 2015

Abstract

The first ‘regular’ transfer of power between two civilian governments in Pakistan manifested itself in the aftermath of the 2013 general elections. Many celebrated this shift as a positive sign of democratic consolidation. However, the appreciation of this allegedly ‘new democratic wave’ ignores the resilience of decade-old authoritarian, and anti-democratic patterns. The military still dominates all significant political decision-making processes. Furthermore, with the 21st constitutional amendment the soldiers were able to further entrench their formal role in the political-institutional setup. This seriously challenges the notions of civilian supremacy, which is unfortunate, since civilian control of the armed forces is a necessary constituent for democracy and democratic consolidation.

Keywords: Pakistan, Army, Constitution, Amendment, Civil-Military Relations

JEL Classification: H56, I28, J18, J68, H50, H60, H70

Suggested Citation

Wolf, Siegfried O., Formal Institutionalization of Military Rule: The 21st Amendment in Pakistan (May 4, 2015). Pakistan Security Research Unit (PSRU) Briefing Paper No. 71. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2839472

Siegfried O. Wolf (Contact Author)

University of Heidelberg - South Asia Institute (SAI) ( email )

Heidelberg
Germany

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