Effects of the Bologna Reform on Educational Outcomes: Micro Evidence from Germany

43 Pages Posted: 19 Sep 2016

See all articles by Sabrina Hahm

Sabrina Hahm

Humboldt University of Berlin

Jochen Kluve

RWI; Humboldt University of Berlin; IZA


The Bologna Process aimed at harmonizing European higher education systems and at increasing their efficiency. This paper analyzes impacts of the Bologna Reform for Germany by using unique micro data from Humboldt-Universit├Ąt zu Berlin (HU). We estimate treatment effects on the probability to graduate within instructional time, on standardized study duration, and on final overall grades. Variation in treatment introduction over time and across departments generates exogenous assignment of students into a treatment (Bachelor) and control group (Diploma). We account for potentially remaining selection bias by estimating a 2SLS model using the share of first-year Bachelor students among all students as an instrument. Our empirical results are robust across specifications and sample stratifications and indicate the following: the Bologna reform led to a significant and sizeable increase in the probability of graduating within planned instructional time; it also significantly decreased standardized study duration. At the same time, overall final grades are significantly worse in the treatment group.

Keywords: Bologna process, education policy, university reform, impact analysis, instrumental variables

JEL Classification: I21, I28, J24

Suggested Citation

Hahm, Sabrina and Kluve, Jochen and Kluve, Jochen, Effects of the Bologna Reform on Educational Outcomes: Micro Evidence from Germany. IZA Discussion Paper No. 10201, Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2840145 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2840145

Sabrina Hahm (Contact Author)

Humboldt University of Berlin ( email )

Unter den Linden 6
Berlin, AK Berlin 10099

Jochen Kluve

Humboldt University of Berlin ( email )

Spandauer Str. 1
Berlin, D-10099

RWI ( email )



P.O. Box 7240
Bonn, D-53072

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