Uniform Confidence Bands for Pricing Kernels
SFB 649 Discussion Paper 2010-003
30 Pages Posted: 9 Jan 2017
Date Written: January 7, 2010
Pricing kernels implicit in option prices play a key role in assessing the risk aversion over equity returns. We deal with non-parametric estimation of the pricing kernel (Empirical Pricing Kernel) given by the ratio of the risk-neutral density estimator and the subjective density estimator. The former density can be represented as the second derivative w.r.t. the European call option price function, which we estimate by non-parametric regression. The subjective density is estimated non-parametrically too. In this framework, we develop the asymptotic distribution theory of the EPK in the L1 sense. Particularly, to evaluate the overall variation of the pricing kernel, we develop a uniform confidence band of the EPK. Furthermore, as an alternative to the asymptotic approach, we propose a bootstrap confidence band. The developed theory is helpful for testing parametric specifications of pricing kernels and has a direct extension to estimating risk aversion patterns. The established results are assessed and compared in a Monte-Carlo study. As a real application, we test risk aversion over time induced by the EPK.
Keywords: Empirical Pricing Kernel, Confidence band, Bootstrap, Kernel Smoothing, Non-parametric
JEL Classification: C00, C14, J01, J31
Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation