How Does Foreign Entry Affect the Domestic Banking Market?

20 Pages Posted: 10 Jan 2017

See all articles by Stijn Claessens

Stijn Claessens

Bank for International Settlements (BIS)

Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

World Bank - Development Research Group; World Bank

Harry Huizinga

Tilburg University - Center for Economic Research (CentER); Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

Multiple version iconThere are 2 versions of this paper

Date Written: May 1, 1998

Abstract

Banking markets are becoming increasingly international through financial liberalization and general economic integration. Using bank-level data for 80 countries for 1988-95, the authors examine the extent of foreign ownership in national banking markets. They compare net interest margins, overhead, taxes paid, and profitability of foreign and domestic banks. The comparative functions of foreign banks and domestic banks is very different in developing and industrial countries, possibly because of a different customer base, different bank procedures, and different regulatory and tax regimes. In developing countries foreign banks tend to have greater profits, higher interest margins, and higher tax payments than do domestic banks. In industrial countries it is the domestic banks that have greater profits, higher interest margins, and higher tax payments. It is common to read, in the literature on foreign banking, that the entry of foreign banks can make national banking markets more competitive, thereby forcing domestic banks to operate more efficiently. The authors show that increasing the foreign share of bank ownership does indeed reduce profitability and overhead expenses in domestically owned banks - so the general effect of foreign bank entry may be positive. Interestingly, the number of foreign entrants matters more than their market share, suggesting that they affect local bank competition more on entry rather than after gaining a substantial market share. These effects hold even when controlling for the fact that foreign banks may be attracted to markets with certain characteristics, such as low banking costs.

Keywords: Access to Finance, Legal Products, Youth and Governance, Public Finance Decentralization and Poverty Reduction, Social Policy, Legislation, Non Governmental Organizations, Public Sector Management and Reform, Economics and Institutions, Judicial System Reform, Legal Reform, Regulatory Regimes, Debt Markets, National Governance, Public Sector Economics, Government Policies, External Debt

Suggested Citation

Claessens, Stijn and Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli and Huizinga, Harry, How Does Foreign Entry Affect the Domestic Banking Market? (May 1, 1998). World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1918. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2894623

Stijn Claessens (Contact Author)

Bank for International Settlements (BIS) ( email )

Centralbahnplatz 2
CH-4002 Basel
Switzerland

Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

World Bank - Development Research Group ( email )

United States
202-473-7479 (Phone)
202-522-1155 (Fax)

HOME PAGE: http://econ.worldbank.org/staff/ademirguckunt/

World Bank ( email )

1818 H Street, NW
Washington, DC 20433
United States

Harry Huizinga

Tilburg University - Center for Economic Research (CentER) ( email )

P.O. Box 90153
Tilburg, 5000 LE
Netherlands
+31 13 466 2623 (Phone)
+31 13 466 3042 (Fax)

Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR)

London
United Kingdom

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