Reassessing Public Support for a Female President

12 Pages Posted: 20 Jan 2017

See all articles by Barry C. Burden

Barry C. Burden

University of Wisconsin - Madison

Yoshikuni Ono

Waseda University

Masahiro Yamada

Kwansei Gakuin University

Date Written: September 19, 2016


We redeploy a list experiment conducted a decade ago to reassess the degree to which the American public opposes electing a woman as President. We find that opposition has been cut in half from approximately 26% to 13%. In addition, opposition is now concentrated in specific sociodemographic categories rather than being evenly distributed. Newly developed statistical methods that permit multivariate analysis of list experiment data reveal that resistance has all but disappeared among Democratic-leaning groups in the electorate. These patterns appear to reflect the reduction of uncertainty among groups most favorable toward the recent success of Democratic women.

Keywords: List experiment, gender bias, social desirability, representation

Suggested Citation

Burden, Barry C. and Ono, Yoshikuni and Yamada, Masahiro, Reassessing Public Support for a Female President (September 19, 2016). Available at SSRN: or

Barry C. Burden (Contact Author)

University of Wisconsin - Madison ( email )

716 Langdon Street
Madison, WI 53706-1481
United States

Yoshikuni Ono

Waseda University ( email )

1-6-1 Nishiwaseda, Shinjuku-ku
Tokyo, 169-8050

Masahiro Yamada

Kwansei Gakuin University ( email )

1-1-155, Uegahara, Nishinomiya
Hyogo, 669-1337

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