Aleatoric Democracy

12 Pages Posted: 25 Jan 2017

See all articles by Bruno S. Frey

Bruno S. Frey

CREMA; University of Basel

Margit Osterloh

University of Basel; Professor (em.) University of Zurich

Date Written: December 12, 2016


Democracy usually is identified by the right to vote. However, in recent times voting procedures have been criticized, as they seemingly do not guarantee that all parts of the population have an adequate voice in the established political process. We suggest invigorating an old but nearly forgotten procedure to overcome this deficit: Aleatoric Democracy based on a combination of voting and random decisions. By using random mechanisms the interests of the whole population are considered. Persons and ideas, being so far disregarded, are taken into account. Democracy becomes vivid and creative, and does not run the danger of being entrenched.

Keywords: democracy, right to vote, lot, random, aleatoric, silent majority

JEL Classification: B100, D700, D780, H100, N400

Suggested Citation

Frey, Bruno S. and Osterloh, Margit, Aleatoric Democracy (December 12, 2016). CESifo Working Paper Series No. 6229, Available at SSRN:

Bruno S. Frey (Contact Author)

CREMA ( email )

Südstrasse 11
Zurich, CH 8008
+41 44 380 00 78 (Phone)

University of Basel ( email )

Peter Merian-Weg 6
Basel, 4002

Margit Osterloh

University of Basel ( email )

Petersplatz 1
Basel, CH-4003

Professor (em.) University of Zurich ( email )

Südstrasse 11
Zürich, CH-8008

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