The Paradox of Inclusion: Social Citizenship and Active Labor Market Policies
65 Pages Posted: 25 Nov 2001
Date Written: November 13, 2001
This paper deals with "welfare" in the U.S., the program primarily for poor single mothers and their families, and "workfare" in Western Europe, the "active labor market" policies that deal primarily with the long-term unemployed, lone parents, the unemployed youth, immigrants, and other vulnerable groups, usually lumped together as the "socially excluded." I explore the ideologies that have led to these changes comparing different views of social citizenship. The Western Europeans argue that their changes, although they resemble the American changes in some respects, are fundamentally different both in ideology and in practice. I raise questions about those claims. As others have pointed out, the move towards "workfare" in Western Europe represents a fundamental change in both the meaning of social citizenship and the administration of welfare. The active move to include the socially excluded inevitably involves selectivity. These programs make significant new demands on field-level administration. The paper concludes with suggestions for accountability and protection.
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