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憲法9条を再生させるための改正論ーなぜ、どのように9条を改正するのか (Change It to Save It: Why and How to Amend Article 9)

立命館平和研究第18号(2017)。(18 Ritsumeikan J. Peace Studies (2017))

39 Pages Posted: 17 Mar 2017  

Craig Martin

Washburn University - School of Law

Date Written: March 10, 2017


Japanese Abstract: 武力の行使を放棄し軍事力の保持を禁じた日本国憲法9条の擁護者は、この規定を改正しようというなんらかのまたいかなる試みについても、一貫して阻止する取り組みを行ってきた。2015年にこの規定の「解釈変更」を企図した日本政府は今や、ある種の憲法改正を強行するという目標を最終的に達成した状態にある。本稿は、憲法9条の最も有力で中核的な特質を維持するためには、憲法9条の擁護者が同条項についての代替的な改正案を展開していかなければならないと論じている。



English Abstract: Defenders of Article 9 of the Constitution of Japan, which renounces the use of force and prohibits the maintenance of armed forces, have consistently worked to block any and all attempts to amend the provision. The government of Japan, having purported to “reinterpret” the provision in 2015, is now well positioned to finally achieve its goal of forcing some form of amendment. This article argues that the champions of Article 9 must, in order to save its most successful and core features, begin to develop alternative proposals for its amendment.

The article begins with a review of the meaning and operation of Article 9. It notes that the first paragraph, Article 9(1) (which is the prohibition on the use of force), is a clear constitutional rule that has effectively constrained government policy, but that the second paragraph, Article 9(2) (which prohibits the maintenance of armed forces and denies the rights of belligerency), has been transformed into an ambiguous standard that has been increasingly ineffective, and has given rise to a dangerous gap between norm and reality.

In arguing why Article 9 should be amended, the article explains the weaknesses in the provision that arise from the ambiguity and ineffectiveness of Article 9(2), analyzes the significant dangers inherent in the government amendment proposals, and the harm that will be done by the “reinterpretation” if it is not replaced by way of amendment. In explaining how to amend Article 9, the article provides draft language as a starting point for debate. It is designed to preserve and clarify the constraints on the use of force; eliminate the harmful gap between the current reality and the constitutional language, and establish civilian control and clear separation of powers in national security decision-making; and clarify the role of judicial review in enforcing the provision.

Note: Downloadable document is in Japanese.

Keywords: 憲法、憲法改正、憲法解釈、第9条、国際法、戦争、集団的自衛権、安全保障

Suggested Citation

Martin, Craig, 憲法9条を再生させるための改正論ーなぜ、どのように9条を改正するのか (Change It to Save It: Why and How to Amend Article 9) (March 10, 2017). 立命館平和研究第18号(2017)。(18 Ritsumeikan J. Peace Studies (2017)). Available at SSRN: or

Craig Martin (Contact Author)

Washburn University - School of Law ( email )

1700 College Avenue
Topeka, KS 66621
United States


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