Seasonal Variation and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Surface Water from Langat River, Malaysia

2015 International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 10(1): 19-40

Posted: 24 Jan 2018

See all articles by Lubna Alam

Lubna Alam

National University of Malaysia (UKM)

Mazlin Mokhtar

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia - Institute of Environment and Development (LESTARI)

Md. Mahmudul Alam

Universiti Utara Malaysia

Md. Azizul Bari

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

Nicholas Kathijotes

Cyprus University of Technology - Department of Civil Engineering & Geomatics

Goh Choo Ta

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

Lee Khai Ern

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

Date Written: March 29, 2017

Abstract

Heavy metals are widely used in various industries and became a great concern all over the world due to environmental contamination. This study provides an assessment of seasonal variability and risks to human health associated with the exposure to heavy metals concentrated in Langat river water of Malaysia. The Department of Environment (DOE) Malaysia kindly provided the heavy metal concentration data in water for this study. Several multivariate estimation such as an independent t test, box-and-whisker plot and Principal component analysis were carried out to evaluate the seasonal variation of metals concentration in water. The average value of ten analyzed metals was 250.81 μg/l and followed in order of abundance by August > Jun > February > October > April > December > March > May > September > January > July > November. The calculated HPI was 123.42, which is far above the critical index value of 100, indicating pollution with respect to heavy metals. Estimates of health risks associated with river water were summarized according to non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health effects. No potential threat was detected for non-carcinogenic risk as the HI values calculated were <1. Potential carcinogenic risks associated with the ingestion and dermal absorption of heavy metals in water were evaluated probabilistically by performing 10,000 trails for Monte Carlo simulation where potential carcinogenic risk exists in case of Cd and As. It is necessary to take proper steps to reduce the pollution of heavy metals in Langat River.

Keywords: Heavy Metal, Langat, Health Risk, HPI

Suggested Citation

Alam, Lubna and Mokhtar, Mazlin and Alam, Md. Mahmudul and Bari, Md. Azizul and Kathijotes, Nicholas and Ta, Goh Choo and Ern, Lee Khai, Seasonal Variation and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Surface Water from Langat River, Malaysia (March 29, 2017). 2015 International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences, 10(1): 19-40. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2942640

Lubna Alam (Contact Author)

National University of Malaysia (UKM) ( email )

43600 Bandar Baru Bangi
Bangi, Selangor 06010
Malaysia

Mazlin Mokhtar

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia - Institute of Environment and Development (LESTARI) ( email )

43600 Bandar Baru Bangi
Bangi, Selangor 06010
Malaysia

Md. Mahmudul Alam

Universiti Utara Malaysia ( email )

Sintok, Kedah
Malaysia

Md. Azizul Bari

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

43600 Bandar Baru Bangi
Bangi, 06010
United States

Nicholas Kathijotes

Cyprus University of Technology - Department of Civil Engineering & Geomatics

Limassol, 3603
Cyprus

Goh Choo Ta

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

43600 Bandar Baru Bangi
Bangi, 06010
United States

Lee Khai Ern

National University of Malaysia (UKM) - Institute for Environment and Development (LESTARI)

43600 Bandar Baru Bangi
Bangi, 06010
United States

Register to save articles to
your library

Register

Paper statistics

Abstract Views
107
PlumX Metrics