신흥 경제 터키의 정치, 경제, 사회문화 분야별 불확실성 연구 (Political, Economic and Sociocultural Uncertainty in Emerging Market Turkey)
391 Pages Posted: 7 Apr 2017
Date Written: December 30, 2016
Korean Abstract: 이 연구는 터키 현지 설문자료, 세계가치관조사 자료, Datastream 자료를 사용하여 신흥 경제 터키의 정치, 사회, 경제 분야별 불확실성 요인을 고찰하였다. 정치 분야에서는 시민정체성과 정치소통(신뢰) 등이 제도안정성을 증진시키는 반면, 국가비전 공유는 정치 불확실성을 감소시키지 못하는 것으로 나타났다. 사회 분야에서는 사회통합 인식과 시민정체성이 터키 다문화 수용성을 증가시키는 반면, 종족정체성과 이민자 거리감은 다문화 수용성을 약화시키는 것으로 나타났다. 경제 분야에서는 환율, 경제적 분위기, 거래상대방 리스크, 전략적 수입의존도 등의 요인이 터키 경제 불확실성의 결정요인으로 나타났다. 또한 고변동성과 저변동성 국면별로 결정요인이 다른 것으로 나타났다.
English Abstract: This study puts its purpose to considering present condition of uncertainty of politics, economics, and social culture in Turkey and the cause of the uncertainty. To analyse actual proof about the economic uncertainty, daily and monthly data of physical indicators and financial market indicators of Turkey offered by Thomson Reuters Datastream was used, also to study uncertainty of politics and social culture, 1,016 questionnaires which were taken in Turkey were gathered. In the case of survey which was conducted in Turkey, usable 503 questionnaires among 1,016 questionnaires were selected to analyse the uncertainty. To raise reliability of the survey, the questionnaires was based on face to face and self-administering method, but collecting of the questionnaires was from 2016.08 to 2016.11 for four months. Basic data, which is cross section data, is concluding 142 questions which are measured by 7 point Likert type scale. To verify robustness of the data, World Value Survey data which is investigated in world main country every 5 years and survey data that was taken by KONDA, which is an authoritative Turkish survey institute, were compared and considered. As an analysis tool, PLS(Partial Least Square) applied structural equation model was used.
In detail, current situation of uncertainty of politics, economics, and social culture in Turkey was introduced in chapter 2. In the field of politics, pessimism in credit rating and political degree of risk development coexists with optimism in the progress of conflict between Islamism and secularism which is the spirit of the national foundation. In the field of social culture, high level of social heterogeneity and social conflict indicators are found because of ethnic and cultural diversity in Turkish society. In the field of economics, indicators that represent sovereign credit risk are increasing over depreciation of the currency and variability of market indices and macro economic indicators which are interest rate and stock index, et cetera. Among the causes, some market indicators make precise determination impossible, so careful consideration about the cause of uncertainty occurrence is needed.
Chapter 3 describes Turkish political landscape as a base work which is assembling various aspects which identity, political life, national vision, and so on contain by considering Turkish political uncertainty determinant. Also, we analysed main determinants of politics uncertainty by exploiting World Value Survey data and obtained data by carrying out a survey in Turkey. A concern about the field of Turkish politics was developing from conflicts between Turks and non-Turks, between Turkish and immigrants, and diplomatic problems with surrounding nations. Especially, uneasiness of the nation in Turkey is increasing and various diplomatic problems are occurring because of a long-lasting conflict between Turks, who are absolute majority, and Kurdish, who are minority, also a rapid increment of refugees and terrorism due to the outbreak of regional conflict containing Syria, and Islamic State. In addition, the present Erdogan's Government claiming to advocate democratic regime at the beginning of launching is showing aspects of somewhat agreed solidity nation in the becoming restless situation because of a occurrence of domestic coup. To resolve the politics uncertainty, intertribal unity to construct social, political order and stability is needed fundamentally, apart from social unity as Turkish. Statistically, civic identity has the same effect as political communication(confidence), also the civic identity enhances a stability of the system.
However, conflict among pro-Western, pro-Islamic, and pro-Russian ideologies is unavoidable potentially in the case of continuous national emergency as it is. Government should suggest national future and vision, and promote value congruence among members of society, but the result of statistic analysis shows that national value sharing in the present Turkish society has no effect in the function of decreasing political uncertainty. It means that political uncertainty cannot decrease without national vision which makes the public not a ideological confrontation group but a united community in the circumstance of the expanded civic political participation along with progressing of an optimum level of democratic society.
Chapter 4 represents uncertainty of the field of social culture. Identity, multiple cultures, and the unity of society are the subjects to consider conflicts among the groups in the multi-cultural society and influencing factors to receptiveness of multiple cultures. Identity is divided into ethnic identity and civil identity, multiple cultures is contemplated with social sense of distance against the other group, particularly immigrants and refugees, receptiveness of multiple cultures, experience of multi-culture education, and understanding. The unity of society is divided into attitude and behavior. Based on the data of Turkish native research institute, domestic and foreign preceding studies, the social sense of distance against immigrants, ethnic(tribal) identity, civil identity, the recognition of unity, the understanding of multi-cultural receptiveness are classified as a predictors, and the experience of multi-culture education is a moderating variable, so we can observe the relationship with receptiveness of multiple cultures.
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